Process Of Communication

Following steps are involved in a successful communication process:

1. Sender Or Communicator

A person who conveys information to another person is called sender or communicator. He develops ideas or information to be transmitted

2. Message Or Ideas

Communication does not take place without message. This is the main element of communication process. Message consists of facts, ideas, thoughts, opinions, data etc. to be conveyed to the receiver.

3. Encoding

Encoding is the process of converting subject matter or message into words, symbol, voice, pictures etc. Sender translates the information into a perceivable form by encoding it.

4. Selecting The Channel Of Communication

Proper channel of communication should be selected to transmit the message. Message can be transmitted by audio-visual(TV, radio etc), by print media(magazine and newspaper) or by face-to-face contact.

5. Receiver

Receiver is a target party of communication or the person to whom the message is meant for. Receiver may be a listener, or reader, or viewer/ 

6. Encoding

After receiving the message, the receiver decodes (processing the message into understanding) it. Decoding is to translate message into a meaningful form.

7. Feedback

It is the final stage of the process of communication. Feedback is respond regarding the message sent by sender. It ensures the effectiveness of encoding, transmitting and clarity of the message.

Features Of Effective Communication

Effective communication should posses the following features:

1. At Least Two Persons

There must be at least two persons to transmit information and ideas because single individual cannot exchange information. So, communication is exchanging of ideas and information between two or more persons.

2. Two-way Process
In effective communication, information flows from top to bottom level as well as bottom to top level without any disturbance. It is a two way traffic. It is essential for sharing opinions, thoughts and feedback.

3. Clarity

Ambiguity should be avoided in communication. The content (information or message) should be specific and clear.

4. Pervasive Function

Communication is pervasive and indispensable function of management in any organization. It helps to coordinate the all organizational mechanisms in order to achieve goals and objectives.

5. Oral, Written Or Symbol

There are number of means of communication such as written, oral, or symbolic. The communicator should choose proper medium to transmit information clearly and correctly. 

6. Adequacy Of Information

Effective communication should contain complete and adequate information so that message can be conveyed properly.

7. Continuous Process

It is unending process of any organization. It is important and continuous process until the existence of the organization. Without communication no organizational tasks can be performed correctly.

Factors Affecting Supervision

Effective supervision is governed by the following factors:

1. Technical And Managerial Knowledge

Competency and ability of supervisor affects supervision in the organization. A supervisor must have knowledge about his responsibilities and authorities. He should be familiar with technical knowledge such as machine, installation, production process etc. For effective supervision, he should be well known about rules and regulation, plans and policies of the organization. Otherwise he cannot properly supervise subordinates at work.

2. Leadership Skill

Supervisor is a operating manager. He is a leader of his subordinates or employees in the organization. So, he should posses necessary leadership skills to motivate and inspire subordinates for better performance. So, managerial and personal leadership qualities are essential for effective supervision.

3. Effective Communication

Effective communication is another key factor that affects supervision in the organization. Supervisor needs better communication skill to interact, issue orders and instructions to the subordinates. He also needs to report the top level management about progress, performance and grievances of subordinates. So, supervisor should posses good communication skills. 

4. Impartiality

A supervisor should be impartial and fair in dealing with the work group in the organization. Impartial attitude of the leader is another important factor for effective supervision.

5. Clear Instruction

Clear, properly communicated and complete instruction helps to maintain effective supervision in the organization. Supervisor should communicate precise and complete instruction to the workers and provide proper guidelines to perform their tasks effectively.

6. Proper Working Condition

It is the function of the supervisor to create proper working condition to the subordinates. Favorable working condition inspires subordinates to perform job more effectively. Proper work condition also helps the leader to maintain better supervision. 

7. Human Relation Skills

For effective supervision, human relation skill of the supervisor plays very important role. A successful supervisor always adopts employee-oriented approach. He treats subordinates as a friend rather than a boss. He focuses on the problems of the employees and takes appropriate steps to solve them. This helps to encourage subordinates and lead to better productivity. 

Functions Of Supervisor

Major functions of a supervisor are as follows:

1. Planning And Organizing

Planning is the basic role of the supervisor as an operating manager. He has to prepare plan and schedule of jobs to be performed. It is the responsibility of the supervisor to divide or assign the work to the subordinates according to their knowledge, skills and capacity.

2. Providing Leadership And Guidance

A supervisor provides leadership to the workers. He acts like a friend and provide guidelines to enhance and drive their performance towards the goals and objectives of the organization.

3. Motivating Subordinates

This is very important function of a leader in the organization. He should apply different motivational techniques to inspire subordinates to achieve the goals.

4. Issuing Orders And Instructions

Issuing orders and instructions is another key function of a supervisor. He supervises and observes the employees' performance and issues orders and instruction to guide them for corrective action. 

5. Controlling Maintaining Discipline

Proper control is necessary to run organizational activities smoothly. Supervisor has to assure smooth operation by enforcing organizational rules and regulations. He should check the progress of work and report to the top level management. For this, he should control the subordinates and maintain proper discipline. Special attention should be given to the subordinates in the organization.

6. Linking Pin

A supervisor is known as a linking pin between top level management and lower level employees. He bridges the gap between the superior and subordinates. He communicates ideas, plan and policies of top level management to subordinates and brings the problems, complaints, grievances and suggestions of subordinates to the top level management.

7. Handling Grievances

Supervisor should clearly understand the problems or difficulties of subordinates. He should try to win their confidence by taking appropriate steps to solve their problems. Supervisor should communicate employees' grievance to the top level management.

8. Proper Working Condition

Working condition directly affects the performance of the workers in the organization. Proper lighting system, proper ventilation, heating, safety devices etc should be maintained in the workplace. Hazards free environment helps to increase employees efficiency. 

9. Reporting

Supervisor has to submit periodical report regarding cost, quality, production, progress of work, employee's performance, target fulfillment etc. to the top level management.

Roles Of A Supervisor

The roles of supervisor in an organization are as follows:

1. As A Mediator 

A supervisor bridges the gap between the top level management and the subordinates. He works as a mediator between superiors and the workers.

2. As A Planner

This is another important role of a supervisor in the organization. Planning the daily works and dividing them to the subordinates according to the schedule is supervisor's responsibility.

3. As A Manager

Supervisor is an operating manager in the organization. He makes plans, gives instructions and supervise the subordinates in order to perform the work properly.
4. As A Guide And Friend

Supervisor provides suggestions and guidelines to his subordinates. He motivates workers and solve their problems. He creates coordination and friendly environment in the workplace. 

5. As A Inspector

Supervisor frames rules and regulations in the organization. He maintains discipline by inspecting employees behavior during the work. He also checks progress of works done by the subordinates regularly.

6. As A Counselor

Supervisor plays the role of counselor in the organization. He always tries to solve employee's problems by handling their disagreements and grievances. He works hard to maintain good relation with subordinates.

7. As A Peace Maker

Supervisor plays a role of peacemaker by preventing conflict between top level management and the subordinates in the organization.

Difference Between Direction And Supervision

Major differences between direction and supervision are as follows:

1. Meaning

Direction: It refers to issuing orders and instructions and motivating subordinates to achieve the objectives and goals.

Supervision: It refers to observing the progress of assigned tasks of employees or subordinates.

2. Scope

Direction: It is a wider management term. Direction includes supervision, leadership, motivation, coordination and communication.

Supervision: It is one of the elements of direction. So its scope is narrower.

3. Contact

Direction: It may take place with face-to-face contact or without face-to-face contact with subordinates.

Supervision: It is possible only with direct face-to-face contact with subordinates.

Merits And Demerits Of Laissez Faire Leadership

Merits Or Advantages Of Laissez Faire Leadership Style
Laissez faire leadership style has the following benefits or strengths:

1. Greater Job Satisfaction

This leadership style increase job satisfaction to the subordinates. Employees can set their own goals and develop plans to achieve those goals. It also build employee morale.

2. Maximum Possible Scope

Laissez faire leadership provides maximum possible scope for the development of workers in the organization.

3. Positive Motivation

This is another key benefit of laissez faire leadership. It practice positive motivational tools and approaches to empower employees in order to achieve organizational goals and objectives.

4. Utilization Of Employees Potentiality

In laissez faire leadership, the potentiality of the employees is fully utilized. Their skills and capabilities are properly used towards the achievement of the goals and objectives.

5. Encourage Personal Development

Laissez faire leadership encourages personal development of the subordinates. It provides the opportunity to grow and enhance their skill and knowledge.

Demerits or disadvantages of laissez faire leadership style
Laissez faire leadership has the following disadvantages or weakness:

1. Ignoring The Leader

This is one of the major drawbacks of laissez faire leadership style. It ignores the contribution of leader and focuses only on employees performance.

2. Lack Of Guidance

In laissez faire leadership, subordinates do not get proper guidance and direction from the leader. They have to set up goals and develop plan to achieve them. Lack of guidance may reduce the productivity of the organization.

3. Unsuitable For Less Competent

Laissez faire leadership style is not suitable for less competent and illiterate subordinates. It is suitable for highly educated, skilled and specialized workers only. 

Demerits Of Democratic Leadership

Democratic or participative leadership style suffers from the following disadvantages or weakness:

1. Unsuitable For Less Competent

Democratic leadership style is not suitable if employees and executives are less competent. It is possible only when the workers are competent, literate, sincere and organized.

2. Long Decision Making Process

In democratic leadership style, subordinates also participate in decision making process. Their ideas, views and suggestions are drawn by the leader. This makes decision making process long and time consuming.

3. Difficulty In Crisis

Democratic leadership style is not suitable at the time of uncertainty and crisis. Very directive or autocratic leaders are suitable to face crisis and uncertainty. 

4. High Chance Of Frustration

In democratic leadership, there exists the chance of employee frustration if their suggestions are not accepted in decision making process.

5. Controlling Problem

Due to more freedom and friendly behavior, it may be difficult for the leader to control his/her subordinates properly. Managers also fear the erosion of power.

Merits Of Democratic Leadership Style

Advantages or strengths of democratic or participative leadership style are as follows:

1. Participation In Decision Making

Participative or democratic leadership assures participation of lower level employees in decision making process. It consults the subordinates in the decision making process of the organization. All the workers are important contributors in decision making.

2. Decentralization And Delegation Of Authority

A participative or democratic leader practice decentralization in the organization. He/she delegates the authority and responsibility among the subordinates for better performance.

3. Two Communication

This is another strength of democratic leadership style. It assures two way communication (top to bottom and bottom to top) in the organization. Subordinates can tell their problems and share their ideas with top level management without any hesitation. 

4. Positive Motivation

Democratic leadership practice positive motivational approaches to empower employees in the organization. It helps to boost their performance which leads to greater productivity. 

5. Better Utilization Of Employee Capabilities

In democratic leadership style, a leader provides various opportunities to the subordinates to explore their capabilities. Their skills, knowledge and capabilities are properly utilized for better productivity and creativity.

6. Suitable For Every Organization

This style of leadership is suitable for all types of organization and business firms. It can be easily practiced in small, medium and large-scale firms. 

7. High Employee Morale

Because of positive motivation, two way communication, and effective reward system, the employees morale remains high in democratic leadership style.

8. Strong Team

Because of the popularity and supportive nature of democratic leader, a strong and supportive team can be built in the organization. It definitely leads to better productivity or output of the firm. 

Demerits Of Autocratic Leadership

Autocratic leadership style suffers from the following weakness or disadvantages:

1. Possibility Of Dictatorship

In autocratic leadership style, a single leader controls the whole organizational activities and employees. So, there is a high chance of dictatorship in this style of leadership.

2. Work Burden To The Leader

In autocratic leadership style, a leader takes full responsibility of entire organizational tasks. So, the leader may suffer from work burden. This may adversely affect his/her health as well as organizational performance.

3. Chance Of Revolt

Due to negative motivation and strict control there is high chance of revolt in autocratic leadership style. Employees dislike autocratic leaders.

4. Communication Problem

There is one way communication in autocratic leadership style. Subordinates are not allowed to exchange their ideas and feelings with the leader. This may lead to misunderstanding among them.

5. Leader Dependence

Autocratic leadership style fully depends on the capability of the leader. Subordinates are not self-motivated to perform the job properly. This may adversely affect the productivity of the organization.

6. Frustration Among The Employees

Because of lack of motivation, insecurity and dictatorship, there is high chance of frustration and low morale among the subordinates in autocratic leadership style.

7. Talent Flees

Due to strictness, lack of appreciation, negative motivation and no opportunity for development, highly skilled and talented employees may leave the organization. So, this style of leadership is not suitable for self-motivated and talented employees.

8. Continuity Threaten 

Due to leader dependence, subordinates cannot perform their duties effectively in the absence of leader. So, organizational continuity is threatened in autocratic leadership style.

Merits Of Autocratic Leadership

Advantages or strengths of autocratic leadership style are as follows:

1. Prompt Decision Making

In autocratic leadership style, decision making process is less time consuming. An autocratic leader can take quick decisions. It is possible because the single leader or manager takes decisions for the whole organization without consulting others.

2. Proper Discipline

Autocratic leadership style can maintain strict discipline in the organization. A leader has the power and right to take disciplinary actions against his/her subordinates. 

3. No Initiative

In autocratic leadership style, there is no need of initiative for planning, organizing and decision making.

4. Secrecy

Under autocratic leadership style, there is no sharing and consultation about official matters with lower level employees. So, secrecy can be maintained in this type of leadership style.

5. Better Control

Proper controlling is possible in autocratic leadership style because of strict supervision and close oversight of the leader.

6. Strong Motivation And Reward

This leadership style provides strong motivation to the leader. It also Provides proper reward and satisfaction to him.

7. Strong Chain Of Command

Strong and effective chain of command can be maintained in autocratic leadership style because of strict discipline, better control and effective supervision.

8. Suitability

Autocratic leadership style is very suitable at the time of crisis. It is very effective when the subordinates lack the feeling of responsibility. It is also suitable when the subordinates or employees are indifferent. 

9. Higher Productivity

Due to strict supervision and effective control, great speed at work is possible in this leadership style. So, it assures higher productivity.

Functions Of Managerial Leader

The managerial leader performs a number of functions that depend on various factors such as nature and size of organization, the authority and responsibility entrusted to him/her. Besides them, the following are the major functions to be performed by a successful manager.

1. Determination Of Organizational Goal
A managerial leader must be clear about the organizational goal. He should interpret the organizational goal among the subordinates. The success of the organization depends upon the interpretation of the managerial leader. 

2. Organization Of Activities
Organizing the activities among the subordinates is the most essential task of a managerial leader. He should involve in dividing the activities in systematic manner. Dividing of activities must be in an effective way which reduces the possible conflict among the subordinates.

3. Providing Guidance
Employees may not be clear about the activities of the organization. In this situation a good leader has to guide the subordinates towards the achievements of the organizational goal. S/he must provide the necessary guidelines and tips to the employees when required. Guidelines of the leader stops organization from possible conflicts and rescues from facing problem.

4. Achieving Co-ordination
A managerial leader must have his major concern to the organizational goals and individual goals together. S/he integrates the goals of the individuals with the organizational goal. S/he should show enthusiasm about the regular performance. It helps to achieve the co-ordination of employees for achieving the organizational goal.

5. Representation Of Workers
Since a leader is a representative of his/her group s/he must concern on the initiative of all matters of interest of his group. A leader tries to fulfill at all his/her group's need and requirements and works as a representative of his subordinates.

6. Inspiration To Employees
Inspiration to the subordinates helps to perform the better job. Inspiration helps to motivate the subordinates to work in better way. Therefore, a leader manages different methods of inspiration like reward, promotion system etc. 

7. Building Employees Morale 
A leader is responsible for building the employees' morale. A leader shapes the thinking and attitude of his group and develops good human relation and facilitates interaction. In this way, he can build employees' morale.

8. Facilitating Change
A leader is the messengers of the change. He works as the mechanism to convince workers about the need to change. As the change agent, a managerial leader also works to bring change to the subordinates.

9. Controlling Function
A managerial leader is a controlling body in the organization. S/he controls the organization and directs it towards achieving its goal. The whole management of the organization is vested in his/her hand and hence, s/he controls the subordinates in a better way.

10. Dealing With Outsider
A leader facilitates the organization as well as workers dealing with outsiders. As the managerial function, s/he has to deal with many outsiders. So, s/he has to be good character and morale. 

Qualities Of A Successful Leader

Essential qualities of successful leaders are as follows:

Managerial Qualities Of A Successful Leader
Certain managerial qualities are required to be a good leader, such qualities can be enhanced through formal education, training and exposure. Some important managerial qualities for effective leadership are as follows:

1. Technical Knowledge
A leader must have the technical knowledge so that he can guide and take right decisions on different matters related to the organization on the technical things like management as well as technical information. Therefore, the leader must be technically sound and rich.

2. Organizing Ability
A leader must have the ability of organizing for accomplishing the goals of the organization. He/she must be able to identify the activities and organize the properly. He/she must have knowledge of bringing together men, machine, materials and money in the best possible manner and use these resources in the most profitable way. As an organizer, the leader must be able to well define the work relations among subordinates and take care of co-ordination among the work group. The leader who has this ability can get success in his/her career.

3. Motivation Ability
A leader must be well-known about the pros and cons of different motivational programs and apply them in workplace. He must be able to induce the subordinates to gain maximum effort from them. For this, he must have a strong knowledge about the needs of his subordinates and must apply appropriate motivation at the right time.

4. Communication Skill
A leader must be competent in communicative skill. He must ensure effective two way communication system in the organization.It helps to maintain coordination, cooperation and exchange of views freely. 

5. Good Human Relation Skill
A leader must have the capacity to understand people, work with them and to gain their confidence, loyalty and voluntary co-operation. He has to inspire and motivate the personnel. He must be able to motivate people towards higher performance.

6. Power Of Judgment
A good leader must have the power of judgment. The leader has to take self decision without any partiality and fear in any kinds of situation. Power of judgment depends on one's self-confidence and self control. Right decision at the right time reflects the ability of the leader.

Personal Qualities Of A Successful Leader
In addition to above mentioned managerial qualities a successful managerial leader should have some personal qualities. Most of these qualities are inborn in nature. Some of the are explained below.

1. Dynamic Personality
The leader must have the charming and the cheerful personality having smiling face, sound health, fitted uniform, decent behavior and confidence in speaking. He requires tremendous stamina and vigor for hard work.

2. Intellectual Capacity
A leader must have knowledge and intelligence. Mental ability to think precisely, analyze accurately, interpret clearly and consciously. These qualities are necessary to consider the problems in the right perspectives. Without these qualities it is difficult for anyone to become a successful leader. 

3. Emotional Stability
A leader should possess a high degree of emotional stability and cool temperament. In  the organization, different situations may come. In such situation, he needs a high degree of tolerance. He should not be deviated even in critical situation.

4. Sense Of Responsibility
A leader should be responsible person and must be willing to assure responsibility for the consequences as well as he must be dependable and trustworthy.

5. Flexibility
A leader must be able to carry on the suitable leadership style. He/she should be prepared to accumulate other's viewpoint and alter his/her decisions if needed. It is very important in the changing environment. In this sense, he has to be flexible according to the time and situation.

6. Self Confidence
A leader must have the self-confidence and strong will power. The situation must not bring change in his activities. Every time he should remain enthusiastic and cheerful in the face of obstacles, otherwise, he/she cannot win the trust of subordinates. 

7. Good Character
A leader must be of good character. He.she must know and possess traits like honesty, loyalty, self-disciplined and devotion to organization. He should be able to set him as an example among the followers.

Qualities Of Good Leadership

Effectiveness of leadership depends on a number of qualities possessed by the managerial leader. An effective leader is supposed to posses certain abilities such as to prove other's mind, to predict future events, to command predictable obedience etc. In fact, effective leadership is the product of various qualities. The presence and absence of these qualities determines the leadership effectiveness.

Various management experts have identified different qualities of good managerial leaders. Consolidating all the views expressed in this regard, the leadership traits can be classified into the following characteristics according to the trait theory:

1. Physical Characteristics
- Age
- Height
- Weight

2. Background Characteristics
- Education
- Experience
- Social Status
- Mobility

3. Social Characteristics
- Tactfulness
- Diplomacy
- Prestige
- Suzerainty
- Ability
- Popularity

4. Task Related Characteristics
- Initiatives
- Persistence
- Need for achievement
- Responsibility

5. Intelligence Characteristics
- Ability
- Judgment
- Knowledge 

6. Personality Characteristics
- Self-confidence
- Enthusiasm
- Decisiveness 
- Aggressiveness
- Extroversion
- Alertness
- Dominance
- Authoritarianism
- Independence 

Difference Between Management And Leadership

A manager has to perform different activities in the organization as the leader. He is a leader of the subordinates. There are distinct differences between a manager and a leader. Following are the major differences between a manager and a leader.

.Manager: Manager is responsible for overall activities of the organization such as planning, organizing, leading and controlling which are related to the organization. So, it is the whole part of the organization.
Leader: Leadership is the ability to influence the group in achieving the goal designed by the management. So, it is a part of management but not the whole. It just energizes the people to reach the goal.

Manager: Manager is appointed and after that gets a position.
Leader: A leader emerges and emergence depends on a number of situational factors.

Manager: Manager directs the works if employees and is responsible for result.
Leader: A leader scopes with change.

Manager: Manager is related to the welfare of the entire organization without giving scope to vested interests. Therefore, it is organization oriented. 
Leader: A leader influences the performance of individuals which contributes to the attainment of group goals. Therefore, it is group oriented. 

Manager: Manager uses formal power to influence the subordinates. Power is always generated into the position. 
Leader: A leader uses informal power to influence the group. A leader emerges from the work group.

Manager: A manager manages complexity through planning and budgeting i.e. setting goals, establishing steps to achieve them and then allocates resources to achieve goal.
Leader: A leader sets a direction of vision of what the future might look like and then develops strategies to produce change needed to achieve that vision or direction.

Manager: A manager seeks those objectives which his/her subordinates do not regard as their own. Therefore, there is always clash of objectives.
Leader: A leader generally seeks those objectives which are the objectives of his/her subordinates. Thus, there is mutuality of objectives between leader and his followers.

Manager: A manager ensures that employees reach their goal by controlling their behavior i.e. they monitor the result by means of reports and meeting and note derivations from the goal.
Leader: A leader motivates and inspires the team of employees, taps their needs, values and emotions.

Importance Of Direction

Direction is a managerial function where managers issue necessary instruction and guidance to the subordinates. Roles or importance of direction in an organization can be highlighted through the following points.

1. Initiate Action

Direction is action-oriented management function. It issues, orders and gives instructions to activate the subordinates. It gives proper guidelines to the subordinates at work. It implements plans and policies to achieve action oriented results for the success of the organization. It always aims to achieve certain results and to achieve the results, it initiates actions.

2. Integrate Efforts

An organization has to perform different types of activities and efforts to achieve its goals and objectives. Different departments, sections, units and individual employees may have their own jobs in the organization. Direction integrates these all varieties of jobs of individual employees, units, sections and departments towards the achievement of organizational main goals and objectives. It links the superiors' and subordinates' efforts towards the main organizational goals.

3. Efficiency Role

Direction always avoids duplication of efforts. It facilitates the efficient utilization of various resources i.e. human and non-human. Direction uses its all components/elements (supervision, leadership, motivation, communication and co-ordination) to increase efficiency in organizational activities. It aims to decrease costs and increase productivity through efficiency. 

4. Change Management

Direction informs the subordinates about the changed environment. The organizational or managerial changes should be timely informed to the subordinates and that should be easily accepted by them. Directing plays a vital role in this situation to encourage the subordinates in changing environment for better productivity. It helps to adopt in changing environment.

5. Human Relation

Direction is directly related with human beings and human behavior. It influences human behavior at work. It creates good environment to make warm relationship between superior and the subordinates. It inspires and develops human relationship in the organization which creates harmony.

6. Stability Of Employees

An organization is a composition of human resource. If all the employees are motivated towards the organization they will never leave till retirement. A stable human resource (work force or employees) are the valuable assets of an organization. Direction function is not limited within instruction and guidance to the subordinates but it also motivates them. It helps to reduce job turn over and increase stability of employees in the organization. An organization gets long term benefits from this.

Components Of Direction

Direction is one of the most important functions of management.It is directly related with human factor of organization. So, effective implementation of direction is concerned with supervision, leadership, motivation, communication and co-ordination. The aspects or components or elements of direction are as follows:

1. Supervision

It is overseeing the subordinates at work to ensure that the work is being performed as required. It gives immediate orders and instructions to guide the subordinates at work. It shows the proper way of doing job. Supervision is a means to monitor and control the performance of the subordinates at working place. It is concerned with direct, guidance and control of the subordinates' performances. It is a managerial function. It is generally provided by middle and lower level managers.

2. Leadership

It is a quality of a manager to guide and influence the subordinates at work. It is ability to build up confidence and enthusiasm. It is guiding and influencing subordinates' activities to achieve organizational goals. Direction is closely related with leadership.

3. Motivation

Motivation is a managerial magnet which energizes the subordinates for the different performance. It inspires the subordinates to work. Direction is closely related with motivation. A superior or leader or manager or boss must have motivating power to attract the subordinates at their work while directing. Both financial and non-financial rewards can be used to motivate the employees. Different factors like working environment, nature of job, individual needs and wants, organization's policies etc. affect the motivation. Motivation is the set of forces or factors that cause people to behave in certain ways.

4. Communication

Communication is an essential and important of direction. It is the process of passing message, meaning and information from one person or organization to another. It is a two way process between the sender and the receiver. A superior direction is based on quality and effectiveness of communication. Clear and two ways communication helps to boost-up the effectiveness of direction. So, superior should develop and utilize the effective means of communication. There must be a proper system of communication in the organization.

5. Coordination

Co-ordination is the process of integrating efforts of employees in the organization to achieve organizational goals. Broadly saying, it is the process of linking the activities and efforts of various departments, sections, units and persons to achieve predetermined goals of the organization in a harmonious environment. Different units, sections, and departments may have their own short term and long term goals. Co-ordination connects these all goals into organizational main goals. It unifies all the activities and efforts towards the achievement of central goals. It integrates all the functions of management i.e. planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling. It gives synergistic effect to organization by which small coordinated effort produces higher result with minimum cost and time duration. It creates healthy environment in the organization. So, co-ordination is inseparable aspect or component or element of direction.

Principles Of Directing

Directing is based on the following principles:

1. Principle Of Harmony Of Goals

Every organization exists to achieve to achieve its organizational goals. An individual joins the organization to fulfill his/her own individual goals. So, one of the principles of direction is to maintain close relation between both goals. Directing motivates employees to achieve organizational goals by which individual goals will also be fulfilled. In this connection, directing should create harmony among the all employees to achieve the organizational and individual goals achievement process.

2. Principle Of Maximum Individual Contribution

Every individual has his/her own distinct features and characteristics. Direction inspires individual to use his/her potential and capability in the best way while performing organization task. In this way, directing inspires the employees to contribute their maximum effort at work.

3. Principle Of Unity Of Command

The subordinates should receive orders, instructions and directions only from one superior. A subordinate should be responsible to one superior only. it helps to avoid indiscipline, disorder, confusion and conflict in the organization.

4. Principle Of Direct Supervision

The superior should give emphasis on face-to-face direct contact with subordinates. It helps for effective direction. The subordinates easily understand the things regarding what does superior want to get from them, if there is direct supervision. It helps to increase mutual understanding, loyalty and efficiency. It gives the immediate feedback to the superiors.

5. Principle Of Effective Communication

Effectiveness of management depends on effective communication. Direction implies effective two way communication system in the organization. The two way communication system refers to the communication from the superior to the subordinates and from the subordinates to the superiors. It helps to make good coordination and remove confusion within the organization.

6. Principle Of Effective Leadership

Leadership is the art of influencing and inspiring human behavior in accordance with requirement. It is the personal quality of an individual who coordinates the efforts of individuals and properly directs them to achieve common organizational goals. And effective leadership can unify the efforts of individuals, of a group or groups and lead towards the achievement of desired common goals. So, directing requires effective leadership.

7. Principle Of Effective Motivation

Motivation is a psychological and human aspect. It is the process of creating willingness among the subordinates to do work in the best possible way. So, directing should motivate the subordinates at work in an efficient manner which helps to increase productivity.

8. Principle Of Efficiency

Directing always gives emphasis on efficiency. It applies different techniques to increase efficiency of the subordinates. Efficiency helps to complete a piece of work within a short period of time, with less efforts and costs.

9. Principle Of Orientation

This principle is concerned with initial stage of direction. Superior takes the orientation class about the job to be performed by the subordinates. The orientation class or the meeting for orientation gives clear knowledge about the working environment, rules and regulations, desired outcome, working way and techniques, superiors, colleagues, the subordinates, organization's expectations and objectives. It helps to make direction effective.

10. Principle Of Feedback or Follow-up

Feedback or follow-up indicates that the directing function is a continuous and modifiable process of management. Motive of direction will not be fulfilled forever and ever through one time direction. After giving direction to subordinates, the superior collects information, and find-out the level of understanding of the subordinates. Feedback helps to evaluate the performance and suggests taking the corrective actions if needed. It helps to improve the quality of the performance through correction.

Features Of Directing

The features or nature of directing can be studied as follows:

1. Directing Is A Management Function

Directing is a key function of management. Direction brings plan into action by motivating subordinates for higher productivity. So, it is a tool of management to achieve organizational goals and objectives. 

2. Directing Is A Linking Function

Directing bridges the gap between standard and actual performance of the employees. It also links managers and lower level subordinates in the organization.

3. Directing Is A Continuous Activity

Directing is a continuous function of an organization. The superiors need to give direction to the subordinates regularly to meet desired result. Direction process goes continuously throughout the life of any organization. 

4. Directing Is a Pervasive Function

Managers of all levels (i.e top level management, middle level management, and lower level management) practice direction function. Therefore, it exists at every level of management. So, it is called pervasive function of management. 

5. Directing Flows From Top To Bottom

Directing flows from superior to the subordinate as it follows scalar chain system. Directing starts with top and ends with bottom level of management. 

6. Directing Is A Human Factor

Directing is a human factor as it is related with human behavior. It is a superior-subordinate relationship in the organization. 

7. Directing Is Performance Oriented

Direction motivates subordinates to perform their work more effectively. It brings plan into action. So, main objective of directing is to boost employees performance. 

8. Directing Facilitates Coordination 

Directing influences the subordinates to work properly and effectively to achieve organizational goals. It brings harmony among employees and top level management. So, it also facilitates better coordination in the organization. 

9. Directing Is A Psychological Factor

It influences and inspires human behavior. Directing deals with feelings, emotions, and psychological of an individual. Therefore, it is also known as psychological factor.

10. Directing Is A Creative Activity

Direction brings plans into action. It motivates subordinates to perform their job accurately and effectively. It requires innovative thoughts, proper techniques, and ideas to convert plan into actual performance. So, directing is a creative activity of the manager.

Factors Affecting Decentralization Of Authority

Decentralization is influenced by some factors that are as follows:

1. Philosophy Of Top Level Management

Decentralization of authority is known as the philosophy of scientific management. If the management is supportive, decentralization will prevail.

2. Size Of The Organization

Decentralization is suitable for large sized organization with multiple operations. Large firms with various departments and employees should practice decentralization of authority. Small organization with limited resources cannot afford decentralization.

3. Dispersal Of Operation

Decentralization Of Authority is highly influenced by the dispersal of operation. It is very necessary if the coverage area of the organization is wide. 

4. Caliber And Capacity Of Lower Levels

Decentralization is not necessary if lower level managers are capable to handle jobs and make decisions effectively. So, skill, knowledge and capacity of low and middle level managers affect the decentralization process.

5. Environmental Influence

It is another key factor that affects decentralization of authority. Technical environment, competition, government policy, tax policy etc. influence decentralization.

6. Cost Factors

Cost is very important factor that directly influence decentralization of authority. If decision related cost is higher, it is not wise to delegate authority to the subordinates.

7. Availability Of Managerial Manpower

If there are more capable and skill managers, it is easy to practice decentralization of authority. Shortage of managerial manpower forces the organization to practice centralized authority.

8. Control Technique

Decentralization of authority is possible of there is effective and scientific control system in the organization. In the lack of effective control, it is not possible  to practice decentralization. 

Difference Between Delegation And Decentralization Of Authority

The major differences between delegation of authority and decentralization are as follows:

1. Meaning 
Delegation: Transferring the rights and responsibility from top level management to the lower level subordinates.
Decentralization: It is systematic distribution of authority and decision making power to the middle and lower level of management.

2. Possibility
Delegation: Delegation of authority is possible with or without decentralization.
Decentralization: Decentralization is impossible without delegation of authority.

3. Technique
Delegation: Delegation of authority is management technique.
Decentralization: Decentralization of authority is management philosophy.

4. Relationship
Delegation: Superior and immediate subordinate relationship.
Decentralization: Top level management and various sections or departments relationship.

5. Process
Delegation: It is a process in the organization and a cause of decentralization.
Decentralization: It is the end result of delegation process or effect of delegation of authority.

6. Need
Delegation: It is important for all types of organizational.
Decentralization: It is not essential for all types of organizational structure.

7. Purpose
Delegation: It is practiced to minimize the burden of top level manager.
Decentralization: Decentralization helps in preparing organizational participants. 

8. Control
Delegation: Top executive who is delegating the authority exercises controlling the organization.
Decentralization: Departmental heads exercise controlling in decentralization. 

9. Withdrawal
Delegation: Easy to withdraw delegated authority at any time.
Decentralization: Difficult to withdraw authority until the end result.

10. Acceptance
Delegation: Subordinates can refuse delegation of authority.
Decentralization: Less chance of refusing decentralization of authority.

11. Usage
Delegation: It is useful for all types of organizations.
Decentralization: It is not useful for small and medium sized organizations.

12. Accountability
Delegation: Top level manager is accountable.
Decentralization: Departmental heads and functional managers are accountable.

13. Responsibility
Delegation: Responsibility lies with the top manager and is not delegated.
Decentralization: Responsibility is transferred to the departmental heads.

14. Parties
Delegation: It includes top level management and subordinates.
Decentralization:  It includes all level managers of different sections and departments. 

Need And Importance Of Decentralization

Decentralization is needed because of the following benefits:

1. Relief To Top Management

In decentralization, authority and responsibility is systematically distributed among different levels of employees. It reliefs top level management from the burden of daily operation. It helps them to focus on future plans and policy. 

2. Facilitates Managerial Development

Decentralization encourages lower and middle level managers for future promotion. Lower and middle level managers can get opportunity to learn by doing. They get chance to handle different assignments and make decisions independently. It helps to enhance their skills.

3. Better And Quick Decision Making

Decentralization ensures better and quick decision making in the organization. Lower and middle level managers have the right to take decision independently. They do not have to wait for the decision of top management.

4. Better Control

Better control is possible in decentralization process because authority if delegated to lower and middle level managers for controlling their subordinates and departments. 

5. Environmental Adaptation

Decentralization helps to adopt internal or external environmental changes by coping challenges.

6. Higher Employee Morale

Decentralization shares authority at lower levels. It is a power sharing process. This process helps to empower lower level employees.

7. Facilitates Growth

Decentralization facilitates growth by providing freedom to lower level managers. It encourages the subordinates to work properly. It helps to increase productivity and creates chance for expansion and growth.

Difference Between Authority And Responsibility

The key differences Between authority and responsibility are as follows:

1. Meaning 

Authority: It denotes legal right to command.
Responsibility: It denotes the obligation to carry out the duty.

2. Origin

Authority: It originates at the top level or formal position.
Responsibility: It originates from superior-subordinate relationship. It is liable position.

3. Delegation

Authority: It can be delegated as per the need of the organization.
Responsibility: Responsibility cannot be delegated. 

4. Flow

Authority: It flows downwards.
Responsibility: Responsibility cannot be delegated.

5. Objectives

Authority: Making decisions
Responsibility: To carry out duties.

6. Continuity

Authority: It is continuous process in management.
Responsibility: It comes to an end after performing the given task.

7. Sense

Authority: Giving orders. Therefore, authority indicates a sense of power.
Responsibility: Following orders. Therefore, it indicates sense of duty.

Meaning And Features Of Responsibility

Meaning Of Responsibility

Responsibility is the obligation to carry out the assigned job effectively and efficiently within the time. It cannot be delegated. It is a personal obligation. It makes the person more responsible. It fixes their duties for assigned job. A manager can delegated the authority but cannot delegate his responsibilities to somebody else. The person who delegates authority for work should also make the subordinates responsible. Responsibility densess the role of the employees in the organization. Responsibility reduces the conflicts and confusions. The level who works on the top level has high responsibility. The other employees must consult with him for discharging their day-to-day activities. Some other employees may have the responsibility of general supervision only. The person who has got the authority should fulfill his duties and responsibilities. So, responsibility is legally to morally obliged to take care of their discharged duties. Therefore, a responsible person should always discharge their duties properly.

Features Of Responsibility

Following are the main characteristics of responsibility: 

1. Responsibility cannot be delegated in any condition.

2. Responsibility shows the relation between top level management and lower level employees.

3. Responsibility is connected with duties and tasks.

4. Responsibility is always linked with authority.

5. Responsibilities flows from downward to upward. 

Types Of Authority

Authority can be classified as follows:

1. Line Authority

It is also known as top to bottom authority as it flows from to bottom level. Line authority can be easily delegated and withdrawn easily as per the need of the organization. Departmental heads or managers posses line authority.

2. Staff Authority

Employees with staff authority do not have decision making power. They only support, assist, and advised the line manager. Staff authority gives the suggestive opinions and advice to the line authority but they do not have the power of giving decision. Decision can be made by line authority only. The legal advisers, consultants and the assistants to the manger posses staff authority.

3. Functional Authority

This is the function based authority. Managers of functional authority are the experts and specialists. They can supervise the work of subordinates related to their functions in all departments. This authority can be given to the specialists for their specific task only. Quality control managers and personnel managers posses functional authority.

Meaning And Features Of Authority

Meaning Of Authority

Authority is a legal power to command. It provides right to make decision. It is a freedom provided by the organization to command, guide, and to influence subordinates to achieve specific objectives of the organization. 
Therefore, authority is a legal right of superior of the organization to handle subordinates. It includes commanding, guiding, directing and influencing subordinates along with responsibility.

Features Of Authority

Followings are the notable characteristics of authority:

1. Legal Power
 Authority is a legal power of superior which helps him to influence and guide others.

2. Right To Make Decision
Authority ensures the right to make decision in favor of the organization.

3. Right To Command
Authority is a legal power to command subordinate level employees.

4. Right To Control
Authority is a right to control subordinates and other organizational functions in order to get better result.

5. Dominance
Authority is dominance by nature because it is a command of leader to the subordinates.

6. Accountability 
The person or superior possessing authority is also responsible to higher level authority. So, he should be accountable for his work.

7. Basis Of Getting Things Done
Authority is right to motivate, affect and influence people and their performance in order to achieve better result. So, it is a basis of getting things done.

8. Can Be Added Or Reduced
Authority can be added or reduced as per the needs and also can be fully withdrawn or delegated to others.