Characteristics Of Business

Business is defined as an important economic activity. It has the following characteristics:

1. Entrepreneurship
Business involves entrepreneurship. It exploits opportunities. A businessman starts business a new business. He assumes risks. he brings together various factors of production such as men, money, materials and management. Business without entrepreneurship is not possible. innovation is the key to entrepreneurship.

2. Economic activities
business involves money-oriented economic activities. They are related to production and marketing of products. Such activities involve costs. They are marketed at a price. Economic activities are performed by humans on a regular basis. They are measured in terms of money.

3. Capital investment
Business requires capital investment. Capital is needed to acquire factors of production. They can be land, labor, technology and management.

4. Utility creation
Business creates utilities for consumer satisfaction. Utilities add value. Business cannot exist if consumers are not satisfied. Utilities can be form utility, place utility and time utility.

5. Risk taking
Business takes risk. Risk is the possibility of loss which reduces chances of profit. Changing environment and uncertainties in future create risk. Risks may be political risk, economic risk, social risk, technological risk and natural risk.
6. Competition
Business operates in competitive environment. Competition can be at local, national and international levels.

7. Customers satisfaction
Business creates and satisfies customer needs. Profit is made by satisfying customers needs.

8. Organization
Business is an organization. It is an association of people. It has objectives, structure and technology. It operates within the environment. it requires management. It prepares and implements plans.It is an organized activity.

9. Continuity
Business has continuity. It involves in dealing in products on a regular basis. It is dynamic. It changes with change to survive and grow. There is continuity is dealings. One time dealing is not business.

10. System
Business is a system. It consists of inter-related activities. They are inputs, processing, outputs and feedback.

Components Of Business

The components of business are industry and commerce :

1. Industry
Industry is concerned with production of goods. Production can be through manufacturing, processing and fabricating. Industry uses human and mechanical power. It utilizes various resources.
Industry creates form utility. It converts raw materials into finished goods. The goods can be of two types:

a. Consumer goods: they satisfy human needs. They can be durable and non-durable. For example, television, mobile phone, bread, butter etc.
b. Industrial goods: They are required for production of consumer goods. For example, machinery, components parts, raw materials etc. They used for further production.

2. Commerce
Commerce is an important component of business. It is concerned with marketing of products. It involves exchange. It deals with buying, selling and distribution activities. Commerce brings products from place of production to place of consumption. It is a bridge between the producer and consumer.

Concept Of Business

There are two concepts of business:

1. Traditional concept
2. Modern concept

1. Traditional concept of business
Traditional concept states that the objective of business is to earn profit through production and marketing of products.

Products can be:

a. Goods. They are physical goods. They can be owned. They are tangible and can be touched. Examples are books, computer, clothes etc.

b. Ideas: They are ideas based on knowledge. Examples are environment protection, human rights, consumer welfare etc.

c. Services: They cannot be owned. They are intangible and cannot be touched. Examples are class lecture, banking service etc.

d. Places: They are specific places such USA, London, Delhi etc.

e. Persons: They are celebrities, such as politicians, movie stars, sports persons etc.

f. Information: They are data-related activities. Examples are research, newspapers, internet etc.

2. Modern concept of business
Modern concept states that business earns profit through customers satisfaction. Business without consumers is not business. It develops long term relations with customers. Business should earn profit with social responsibility. It should care about the welfare of society and consumers. it must work within the law.
Business encompasses all economic activities involving production and marketing of products to earn profit and wealth through satisfaction of human needs.

The main points in the concept of business are as follows:
* Business is money-oriented organized economic activity
* Business produces and markets products
* Business makes profit to acquire wealth
* Business satisfies customers needs by creating utilities.
* Business behaves legally with social responsibility.
* Business works within the law.

Concept And Meaning Of Business

Business is money-oriented economic activity. It is carried out on to earn income and wealth. It provides economic benefits. Business is measured in money. It is concerned with production and marketing of products. Goods, services, ideas, places, persons and information are products. Marketing involves exchange of products for money.
Business creates utilities to satisfy consumers needs. Utilities can be of three types. They are:

a. Form utility: it i created through processing. It involves converting raw materials into finished goods. For example, sugar is converted into sweets.

b. Place utility: It is created through transporting goods from place of production to place of consumption. Consumers can buy goods at convenient places.

c. Time utility: It is created through storage of goods for future use. Delivery can be made in tome to meet consumer needs.

Business consists of industry and commerce. Industry is engaged in production of goods. It uses resources. Commerce is engaged in marketing of products. The profit motive drive business. It makes profit in a socially responsible manner. Every business involves risk. Possibility of loss is risk.

Features Of Agricultural Goods

The agricultural products are of different nature than industrial products. So the features of products can be divided in three major types on the basis of production, marketing and consumption.

1.Production-related features of agricultural goods
The production related features of agricultural products are as follows:

a. Seasonal production
Most of the agricultural goods are produced only in certain season. The food crops such as maize, paddy, wheat etc.; cash crops such as sugarcane, tobacco, jute and vegetables, potato and fruits are produced in certain suitable seasons. But some products such as fish, diary products, eggs etc. can be produced in all seasons. Every thing cannot be produced in all seasons. So, seasonal products affect agricultural market.

b. Scattered Production
Except some limited goods most of the agricultural goods are produced in all parts of the country. As farmers live scattered in different parts of the country, middlemen collect agricultural products and supply to markets.

                          Also Read: Meaning Of Agricultural Marketing

2. Marketing-related features of agricultural goods
The major marketing related features of agricultural goods are as follows:

a. Perishable products
Most of agricultural products are of perishable nature, but all are not equally perishable within same duration of time. Some perish within shorter time and some others remain usable for little longer. Fish, milk, meat, fruits, vegetables etc. remain fresh only for shorter time, so they are quick perishable. Such products should be supplied to market as quicker and possible. Special cold storage is needed to keep such goods safe and fresh. Food crops/grains such as rice, wheat, mustard etc, remain usable relatively for long time.

b. Bulky products
Most of the agricultural products are weighty and bulky. So, transport and storage cost rises higher than the value of these products.

c. Quality and quantity variation
Quality and quantity of agricultural products become different according to the productivity of land, season and climate. The quality of seeds, use of fertilizers etc. also causes difference in quality.

3. Consumption-related features of agricultural goods
The consumption features of agricultural products are as follows:

a. Continuous consumption
Agricultural products are very important to meet daily needs of people. So, it is necessary to have regular supply of agricultural products such as food grains, fish, meat, milk, fruits etc to satisfy daily demand.

b. Inelastic demand
The demand for agricultural products remains relatively less elastic. Demand for such products does not decrease or increase due to rise or fall of prices. The consumers are compelled to meet their daily needs at minimum level, even if the price of agricultural products rises up.

c. Price fluctuation
The price of agricultural products remains unstable. It fluctuates time and again. The price of agricultural products is easily affected by supply and demand.

Concept And Meaning Of Agricultural Marketing

Simply, the activity of buying and selling of agricultural inputs and products is called agricultural marketing. The market where the activities of buying and selling of fertilizers, seeds, pesticides, agricultural tools, etc. that are necessary for agricultural production and development is called the market of agricultural inputs and tools. The activities of buying and selling of food grains, cash crops, vegetables, diary products, fishery, and horticultural products are also the part of agricultural marketing. So, agricultural marketing is found to have occupied a wide and important place. Under this include wide-ranging activities like collection of agricultural materials and products, products standardization , arrangement of buying and selling, development of organized market etc.

Like in other markets , mutual interaction between buyer and seller is also necessary in agricultural market. Without the role of farmers, agricultural market is not possible. But the role of farmers is both as buyer and sellers in agricultural market. They become buyers in agricultural inputs and tools and become sellers in the market of agricultural products. So, farmer's role is paramount in agricultural market.

Objectives Of Public Relations

The main goals and objectives of public relations are as follows:

1. Building awareness
The objective of public relation is to build awareness and raise interests in concerned persons, groups and parties towards the firm's goods, services, ideas, policies, programs, progress etc. by informing them.

2. Announcing new products
Public relation can be used while bringing newly developed products in markets. Public relation can be used to publish information, messages, features, quality, utility, price, advantages etc of products through media 

3. Building and maintaining customers loyalty
The other objective of public relation is to build and maintain customers loyalty to the firm's products and the firm itself. Such relation helps build loyalty in customers towards products and brand.

4. Building relationship with opinion leaders and others
Public relation gives emphasis to develop relationship with important opinion leaders, professionals and others. This makes possible to bring improvement in sales and firm's public image.

Meaning And Nature Of Public Relations

Concept And Meaning Of Public Relations
A marketing manager should pay attention towards different stakeholders such as investors, consumers, suppliers, distributors, press, government bodies, pressure groups, local people, general public etc. The functions carried out by a firm for the purpose of maintaining good relationship with the stakeholders is called public relations. Public relation develops positive attitude in people towards the firm, its products, and policies. It has become an important part of promotion in marketing.

Nature of public relations
1. Media relation
Local, regional, national and international press can be used for publishing positive news about a business firm or its products. News may be based on the press statement, company's events like conference, publication of annual report, declaration of new products , or any thing about the firm's activities.

2. Group relations
The public relation department of a business firm can work together with local community, consumers association, labor organization, different social organizations and environmental protection groups or so to solve different social problems. Such social activities can also be published in news media.

3. Lobbying
The task of establishing personal relationship with important persons such as MPs, social leaders by marketing managers is lobbying. Such relationship makes their attitude or views positive towards the firm and its products.

Importance Of Publicity

A business firm can get various benefits from use of publicity as promotion mix . the causes of its use and importance are as follows:

1. Credibility
As sponsor is not mentioned or not identified in publicity, the information and message about goods or services communicated by independent source become more credible and dependable.

2. Greater readership
As information and messages about goods or services are communicated mostly through important newspapers or other media , greater number of readers can read the information and messages published in them. So, sometime publicity plays an important role of promotion.

                                     Also Read: Characteristics Of Publicity

3. Contains more information
Publicity is used as more information and messages can be included in it than in other promotion methods , specially, advertisement. Many aspects of goods or services of business firm can be covered in special feature articles.

4. Cost benefit
Not so considerable cost is needed in publicity. Advertisement is a costly method of promotion, but publicity is comparatively much economical method. In other words, if calculated the cost for advertisement, more benefits can be received from publicity.

                          Also Read: Meaning Of Publicity

5. Speed
Publicity is the faster means for communication , information and messages about firm and its goods or services. Publicity has greater speed to reach the public. 

Characteristics Of Publicity

The main characteristics of publicity are as follows:

1. Third person involvement
Third persons involve in providing information and messages about goods or services of a firm. So, involvement of third persons under publicity is necessary for the promotion of business firm and its products. It becomes possible only through effective public relations.

2. Publicity is free
Not any amount as fee or charge is needed to the third persons for the publicity of information and messages about goods or services and the firm. The business firm need not bear direct expenses for the publicity materials communicated to the general public through mass media.

                                  Also Read: Importance Of Publicity

3. Greater readership
Information and messages about business firm and its products can be communicated to greater number of audiences and readers by making flow of news and holding press conference.

4. No chance of repetition
There remains no possibility of repetition of the information and messages about the firm and its products communicated through publicity. But in advertisement , they may repeat.

Concept And Meaning Of Publicity

Publicity has its own importance in marketing. Although it was no given importance by marketing managers in the past, it has drawn attention of strategic writers and marketing exports.

Business organization does not publish information by paying for, but information or messages about the goods or services are published in the firm of news articles through communication media. Sometimes publicity is taken as the means of public relation. Public relation occupies a broad scope. It develops and maintains positive relation between the organization and its customers, staff, shareholders, government officers and society. Publicity is only an important aspect of public relation.

There is also difference between publicity and advertisement. Advertisement is both informational and promotional whereas publicity is only informational. Advertisement is made for immediate effect on sales but publicity of messages does not have such effect on sales. Sponsor is acknowledged in advertisement for which certain fee is paid. But payment is not needed for publicity nor the name of sponsor is given. So, although both advertisement and publicity are promotional communication methods, there are differences between them.

Thus publicity is such a method of public relation through which information and messages about the products and company are communicated. For this, the concerned business firm neither pays any fee or nor can control the media.

Methods Or Tools Of Sales Promotion

The Short-term methods to be used by any business firm to increase sales volume are called means or tools of sales promotion. Such short-term methods or tools are directed towards consumers, middlemen and even to the sellers appointed by the producers. So, the methods of sales promotion can be divided in three groups as consumer, promotion, middlemen/trade promotion and sales-force promotion.

1.Consumers promotion
Sales promotion means are directed to make the current consumers increase the use of products and attract new consumers. Along with this, consumer-oriented sales promotion methods are also used to offset competitors' sales promotion strategies or to minimize the decline of sales volume at the time. Free samples, coupon, price-off promotion, premium, consumer contests and demonstration are the consumer-oriented promotion methods.

                           Also Read: Objectives Of Sales Promotion

2. Middlemen/Trade promotion
Only encouraging consumers or customers to buy products is not enough for the producers or sellers, they should also encourage middlemen. They should encourage wholesalers, retailers, dealers, distributors, etc. to buy products in large quantity. The method to stimulate middlemen is called trade promotion. Dealers, distributors, or other middlemen can be encouraged to buy and keep more inventory of goods. Middlemen can be attracted through different methods or tools such as cash discount, price-off promotion, contests, gift, display and advertising allowance etc. Besides these methods, the producers may increase sales volume by organizing time-to-time training and workshops, giving instruction and advices to the middlemen.

                       Also Read: Roles And Importance Of Sales Promotion

3. Sales-force promotion
Manufacturers appoint salespersons to sell or distribute their products. Such salesman are sales-force. Sales volume can also be increased through effective mobilization and encouragement to the sales-force. Different methods like bonus, sales-force contest and sales meetings can be applied as sales-force promotion.

In this way, the methods used in sales promotion can be divided in three classes. Any one or more methods can be used according to the promotional objectives of the business firm, target market for promotion, nature of products, methods of promotion and its cost, current financial position etc.

Objectives Of Sales Promotion

Sales promotion works as link between advertisement and personal selling. There may be difference in the objectives of the method of sales promotion. However, the common objectives of sales promotion are as follows:

1. To introduce new products
Through sales promotion, new products are presented to prospective customers to persuade them to buy the products. Mostly free samples are distributed. Likewise premium, consumer competition, reduction in price etc. tools can be used. Besides the consumers, middlemen also can be motivated to keep stock of the products.

2. To identify and attract new consumers
The objective of sale promotion is also to identify new customers and attract them towards the firm's products. Different techniques of sales promotion are used at different times to stimulate customers to buy the products. If the business firm feel that the volume of current sales to the present customers is unsatisfactory, the firm tries to identify and develop new customers to sell the products.

                             Also Read: Methods Or Tools Of Sales Promotion

3. To encourage more purchase among current customers
The main objective of sales promotion is to increase sales volume. The producers encourage current customers to purchase more through different promotional methods like premium, reduction in price, competition etc.

4. To combat or offset competitors' marketing efforts
A business firm always adopts sales promotion policy so that its products are not sold less than competitors' product in the markets. So, it becomes necessary for the firm to adopt proper sales promotion policy to offset the effect of competitors' policy in the market, if they try any. Hence the objective of sales promotion is to counter competitors' marketing policy and efforts.

                                Also Read: Roles And Importance Of Sales Promotion

5. To stabilize the fluctuating sales pattern
Fluctuation in demand, especially due to seasonal effect, brings instability in sales volume. In such situation, the producer or business firm can bring stability in sales pattern through sales promotion programs.

6. to increase brand awareness
The other important objective of sales promotion is to increase the total number of customers by increasing brand awareness.

                                      Also Read: Meaning Of Sales Promotion

7. Other objectives
The other objectives of sales promotion are as follows:
* Increasing consumption
* Broadening distribution channel
* Educating consumers regarding product improvement
* Bringing more customers into retail stores.

Roles And Importance Of Sales Promotion

The importance of promotion in marketing is gradually increasing. Marketing specialists have mentioned that use of sales promotion has dramatically increased in past decade. The producers have spent much more amount on sales promotion than on advertisement. Sales promotion is equally important to producers, middlemen and consumers. Its role or importance can be discussed as follows:

1. Importance of sales promotion to producers
Sales promotion is very important as well as effective method for manufacturers to supply products to target market. It attracts prospective customers to new products along with the increase in demand for old products. Increase in volume of production and sales decreases per unit cost. As a result, profit increases. Sales promotion also increases effectiveness of personal selling , advertisement and goodwill of the firm.

                                  Also Read: Methods Or Tools Of Sales Promotion

2. Importance of sales promotion to intermediaries
Intermediaries/middlemen also get benefits from sales promotion. It becomes easy for wholesalers, retailers,agents and dealers to sell goods, because it is not needed to inform consumers about the features, utility, price, using information, etc of the products. This saves labor and time. As the businessmen get trade discount, gift, bonus, etc from producers. It results sales volume resulting in more profit. Demand and supply of products continues by which capital invested in stock of goods can be effectively mobilized.

                               Also Read: Objectives Of Sales Promotion

3. Importance of sales promotion to consumers
The consumers also get adequate benefits fro sales promotion. They can get direct benefits from the programs such as free distribution of samples, reduction in price, coupon, participation in competition etc. Besides this, the consumers get various indirect benefits from sales promotion. It increases their loyalty to the product and firm, knowledge about the products, improvement in their living standards etc. Facilities to select products, availability of goods at cheaper price, possibility of self-services etc. increase good understanding and confidence between businessmen and consumers.

In this way, producers, intermediaries and, consumers get benefits from sales promotion.

Concept And Meaning Of Sales Promotion


Sales promotion under promotion mix includes those promotional activities, which are not included on the activities like personal selling, advertisement and publicity. Such activities increase sales. Sales promotion works as the link between personal selling and advertisement. The short-term techniques like sample distribution, coupon, premium, price reduction, gifting programs, fair, display etc. that are adopted to increase sales are the marketing activities of sales promotion.

Hence, various short term activities to be carried out for the purpose of stimulating target markets or consumers to buy goods or services and convince dealers or middlemen to purchase goods are 'sales promotion'. In wider sense, under sales promotion include the activities such as consumer promotion, dealer promotion and salesperson promotion. Sales promotion supports personal selling and advertisement.

Qualities Of Successful Salesperson

Selling of goods is an art. Every salesperson should posses certain personal qualities by which s/he can successfully perform. A salesperson should be wise, have initiating ability, impressive personality, happy mood, dutiful etc. In practice, no salesperson can be found endowed with all such virtues and could be called an ideal salesperson. Even then, following qualities are necessary for a good salesperson:

1. Physical qualities
A good salesperson should posses the following physical qualities.
* Attractive personality
* Neat and clean
* Good health
* Cheerful
* Ability to impress
* Sweet speaking

2. Mental qualities
Good salesperson needs goods mental qualities as follows:
* Patience and enthusiasm
* Adequate intelligence
* Maturity
* Self-confidence
* Understanding
3. Social qualities
Goods salesmen should be endowed with social qualities. These qualities are as follows:
* Sociable
* Co-operative
* Good manner

4. Character qualities
The character qualities necessary for goods salesmen are:
* Honesty
* Loyalty

5. Professional qualities
The professional qualities of salespersons can are as follows:
* Complete in salesmanship
* Professional ethics

In this way, salespersons should be endowed with salesmanship, professionalism characters and professional ethics. This makes salesperson a good seller. Although all these qualities may not be found in single person, most of these qualities should be in every salesperson.

Types Of Salespersons

The role of salespersons become crucial in sales and distribution of goods or services. Such sellers are different such as producers' salespersons, wholesalers' salespersons, and retailers' salespersons.

1. Producers' Salesperson
The sellers appointed by producers are called producers' or manufacturer's salespersons. They sell goods or services to wholesalers, retailers and final consumers. They get remunerations directly from producers. The types of producers' salespersons are as follows:

a. Pioneer salespersons
Pioneer salespersons give information to consumers about new goods or services of manufacturers. They present themselves active, influential and decisive to introduce new products in markets. Their role becomes important to introduce new product in markets. Their role becomes important to create demand for new products.

                            Also Read: Qualities Of Successful Salesperson

b. Merchandising salespersons
The sellers who are skilled in selling special types of goods like medicines, scientific materials and equipment, electronics goods etc. are called merchandising salespersons. Appointed by manufacturers can have good knowledge about the products.

c. Dealers servicing salespersons
The sellers appointed by manufacturers to establish living contact with distributors, wholesalers, middlemen or dealers to receive purchase orders from them are called dealer servicing salespersons.

                             Also Read: Sales Process Of Indoor Salesperson

2. Wholesalers' salespersons
The sellers appointed by wholesalers are called wholesalers' salespersons. Their main function is to help wholesalers to supply needs of retailers by keeping regular contact with them. Such salespersons go to retailers'shop,check the stock of goods, collect purchase orders, make arrangement of delivery etc. They give advice and suggestions to retailers about, decoration, display of goods, promotion etc. They also give wholesalers about market situation, retailers' problems, competition etc. and help them.

                             Also Read: Sales Process Of Outdoor Salesperson

3. Retailers' salesperson
The sellers appointed by retailers for the purpose of taking help in distribution and sales of goods or services are called retailers salespersons. They find prospective customers, contact them, help them in selection of goods and deliver goods to them.

The Sales Process Of Outdoor Or Traveling Salesperson

The selling process of traveling or outdoor salespersons is different from the method used by indoor salesperson. This can be mentioned as follows:

1. Prospecting Customers
The task of seeking potential customers is called prospecting. The traveling or outdoor salespersons travel different places for seeking potential customers. They prepare list of potential customers. This saves time and effort of the sellers. Only potential/prospective customers who can be real customers in future should be found by studying their needs and wants. For this list of names and address of such customers should be prepared.

2. Pre-approach
After the potential customers have been found, the sellers collect necessary data of the sales of goods. This is done before meeting the customers. This stage is called pre-approach. At this stage the sellers classify the customers, study their needs, wants and identify their buying motive. Then information about their nature, interest, educational level, age, social life, economic position etc. should be taken.

                                   Also Read: Sales Process Of Indoor Salesperson

3. Approach
An outdoor salesperson should make an approach to the customers according to the plan made in pre-approach. For such approach, meet and talks correspondence, telephone or other means should be used to determine date, time and place. The seller should be smiling, active, clean and healthy at the time of meeting the customers.As soon as the customers are meet, the seller should give good impression. At the beginning the seller should give short introduction of the company,himself/herself and the products to the customers. 

4. Presentation And Demonstration
While approaching the customers, the traveling salespersons should present the goods. They should explain the attributes, quality, utility, price etc. of the products to the customers. Presentation and explanation of the product should be short, complete, clear, attractive and simple that the customers are interested to buy the products.

                                 Also Read: Types of Salespersons

5. Meeting Objections
After presentation and demonstration of the products, the customers may express doubt or objections to the quality, feature, and price of the products or to the presentation by the salesperson. If the customers cannot get satisfactory answers of such doubts or objection from the salesperson, they do not buy the products. So, it is an important task of salesperson to face doubts and objections and give satisfactory answers.

6. Closing The Sale
After properly solving the objections and doubts of the customers, the last stage of selling process is to close the sale. To close the sale by motivating the customers to make buying decision or getting order from them is the successful sale.

Sales Process Of Indoor Salesperson

The process to be applied by an indoor salesperson can be discussed as follows:

1. Drawing Attention
At first the salesperson should draw attention of the customers to sell goods. If the attention of the customers coming to the shop themselves is not drawn, they may go to other shop. If the indoor salesman does not draw the customers' attention towards his shop among many other similar shops, it becomes impossible to sell goods. In order to attract the customers towards his shop, a salesperson should hang signboard, decorate and display his goods in a way that they are clearly seen by the customers.

2. Reception
The task of indoor salesperson is to attract and receive customers in their shop. As soon as possible the customers enter the shop, the salesperson should respectfully welcome and great them. The salesperson should welcome them impressively in a heart-winning manner.

                                    Also Read: Sales Process Of Outdoor Salesperson

3. Inquiry
After receiving and welcoming the customers to the shop, the salespersons should inquire about their needs and wants. The salesperson should politely and respectfully ask the customers relevant questions to understand their needs and wants.

4. Demonstration Of Goods
After asking the customers about their needs, wants, desire and interest, salesperson should show or demonstrate the goods to concerned customer. While demonstrating the goods the seller should be cheerful, smiling and active. The quality, features, relative benefits, importance etc. of the goods should be clearly explained to the customers so that they decide to buy goods.

                              Also Read: Types Of Salespersons

5. Replying The Objections
Customers may raise doubt, objections to the goods after the salesperson demonstration and explains the quality, utility, features, price etc. of the goods. Seller should calmly and politely reply them. While doing this, more information about the goods or services can be given to the customers.

6. Selection Of Goods
After the customers have got satisfactory answers or reply from seller, they take decision to buy the goods. Then they select the goods whichever they want. A salesperson should not force the customers to buy the goods, which they do not prefer; rather than the seller should help them to select proper goods.

                               Also Read: Qualities Of Successful Salesperson

7. Additional Sales
After the customers have selected goods, actual selling is completed. The salesperson hands over the goods to the customer. Then the seller prepares bill. The salesperson can request the customers to buy any additional goods. Such additional goods should match the already bought goods. The suggestion should be given according to the nature and attitude of the customers. 

8. Commendation And Seeing-off With Praise
The last stage of the process of indoor salesperson is to see off customers with commendation or praise. Taking price of the goods from customers does not complete a sellers' function. The salesperson should properly praise and commend for buying goods.

Meaning And Importance Of Personal Selling

Concept And Meaning of personal selling
Personal selling is widely practiced and old method included in promotion mix. Here the sellers meet perspective customers, talk with them face to face and give information about goods or services. Sellers should be skilled in such activities. They should give information; describe the quality, features, utility, price, durability etc. of the goods and services and make them confident about the goods. Such activities of the sellers arouse interest, desire for the goods and persuade them to buy the goods.

In this way, a seller directly communicates information to customers. Compared to other functions of marketing, personal selling is related with the management of human resources. The success of the entire marketing program depends on how effectively the sales-force has been managed.

Roles and importance of personal selling
In the present competitive environment of business, effective selling of goods or services has become very difficult and challenging task for any business firm. Personal selling plays a dynamic role as well as decisive role in selling. It occupies an important place in promotion mix. Personal selling may be very effective means in selling goods or services by giving good impression to the perspective customers.

Personal selling has various benefits and attributes of its own compared to the non-personal methods of promotion such as advertisement, sales promotion, publicity, public relation etc. Its role in marketing can be discussed as follows:

1. Dynamic role
As the salespersons meet and have direct conversation with perspective customers, they know about their needs, wants, interests, attitude etc. Salespersons can present their sales according to the needs and wants of the customers. The salespersons change their presentation with the changes taken place in the attitude and behavior of individual customers. Dynamic and flexible behavior of the sellers help to increase sales.

2. Focus on prospective customers
Personal selling method focuses on prospective customers. In advertisement , more cost needs to communicate message and information to non-prospective customers. But in personal selling, prospective customers are identified then efforts to sell goods or services to them. In this method sales can be made at minimum cost, less efforts and less time.

3. Actual sale
Personal selling is a such technique of demand creation from which actual sales become possible. Other techniques are only directed towards prospective customers.

4. Channel of communication
Seller pays two-way roles in communication process. He communicates information about features, quality, utility, price etc. of the products to customers. In the same way, he identifies the needs, wants, interest, change in fashion etc. of customers and communicates to producer. So, a seller is a medium of communication.

5. Social relations
Sellers establish social and living relationship with customers. As a result, this helps to develop positive attitude of customers towards the firm. Sellers plays supplementary roles to achieve the goal of continuous existence by maintaining close relationship with the customers.

The above points make clear the roles of personal selling. It helps to increase the volume of sales.

Means Of Advertisement Or Advertising Media

The means used in communicating information and messages about goods or services are advertising media. The main advertising media are as follows:

1. Press or print media
Newspapers, journals, magazines and other printed mistrials are called print media. This is much practiced and important media among advertising media. Press or print media can be divided in newspapers, magazine, catalog, broacher, news-later, profile, posters etc.

2. Visual media
The presentation message of advertisement to be seen by eyes is called visual media. This is external advertisement. Under this include billboards, outdoor displays and indoor displays. Billboard or hoarding board is printed the advertisement. It is attractively printed in attractive designed letters and put at the places where people can see it. Outdoor display includes paintings, posters, banners, wall painting, electronic symbols etc. and are used as advertising media. Similarly, the messages or advertisement presented in retail shops, trade fair, exhibition etc are called indoor advertising.

                                   Also Read: Objectives Of Advertising

3. Audio media
The advertisement communicate in a way that people can hear the message is audio media of advertisement. Radio, tape-recorder, circular disk, telephone etc. can be used to communicate advertising message. Among them radio is the popular as well as effective media. So, it is called radio advertising.

                                Also Read: Importance Of Advertisement

4. Audio-visual media
The other popular advertising media is television. This is audio-visual media of advertisement.In this, both presentation and explanation of the products can be done at the same time. Sound, song, music, speed, scene are included in advertising any product. This kind of advertising is free from the defects of only audio or video advertising.

                             Also Read: Meaning Of Advertising

5. Electronic media
Audio-visual media are also electronic media for advertising. But here electronic media means internet media. Now a days, direct selling has become possible through telephones and computers. E-mail and websites are used for advertisement. Internet media has go popularity in short time.

Objectives Of Advertising

The main objective of advertising is to sell goods or services. In order to achieve this major objective other specific objectives are formulated and applied in personal advertising campaign. Such specific objectives are designed or determined by entire marketing strategy. They are as follows:

1. To assist salespersons
The major objective of advertising is to give information about goods or services to perspective customers. This supports personal selling. In fact, if advertisement already reaches the customers, it becomes easy for sellers to sell the advertised goods or services. Sometimes, advertisement reaches the people inaccessible to the sales-force and informs them about the products.

2. To inform about new product
The other objective of advertisement is to give information to the general public about new products. While making plan for new products, it is aimed to make know the customers or even businessmen about the utility, quality, features, benefits, price etc of the new products.

                                      Also Read: Means Of Advertisement

3. To create new demand
The objective of advertisement is to attract perspective customers and motivate them to buy the products. Through the means of advertisement customers can be motivated to buy even the goods, which are not necessary for them.

4. To create and maintain image and goodwill
Advertisement can disseminate good impression, goodwill and good image of the producer or seller in the general public. Already established goodwill and good image help in bringing new product in market easily.

                                 Also Read: Importance Of Advertisement

5. To reduce cost
The other objective of advertisement is to increase demand, sales and reduce production and distribution cost through effective advertising.

6. To remind and reinforce customers
The objective of advertising is to remind customers of the utility, price, benefits etc. of the already established brand of the products and also to encourage customers to buy the products suggesting that their selection is right.