Concept And Meaning Of Passport

Passport is an official document issued by a competent authority to its nationals or to alien residents.Passport is the most important identification document and travel permit for leaving one's country and entering foreign country. Every international passenger must be holding a valid passport for all the countries to or via which they travel. Passports are valuable documents. It is the property of the issuing government and government may ask t return it. A foreign traveler must carry passport all the times. The loss of a passport should be reported immediately to the police and then to the consulate. Embassy or councilor will reissue passport but if they are not authorized to issue passport they will issue travel documents as a substitute of passport which may not always have the same legal effect as passport and are limited t certain country or to certain purpose only. Other countries may not accept this type of special document. It is advised to check with the country of destination before the validity.
Nationality of a person is established by checking the specific information under the "nationality" in their passport. Some countries have special provision that a person can be a citizen of more than two countries. Then the travelers may hold more than two passports. Such passengers are entitled to travel on any of these documents.

Types Of Visa

The purpose of intended travel will determine the type of visa required. Countries issue different types of visas. Some of the common types of visas are as follows:

1. Airport Transit Visa
This type of visa is valid at the airport only. The holder of this visa is not allowed to leave the airport. Generally this type of visa is valid for less than 12 hours.

2. Transit Visa
Transit visa will allow the passenger to use the country for limited time. The passenger may clear the immigration, custom and visit the country for limited time. This visa is valid for mostly 24 hours.

3. Tourist Visa
Tourist visas are issued for tourist. Generally they are valid for less than 9 months. At the point of entry, visa is stamped for 3 months which can be extended up to 9 months. The tourist visas are issued for single entry, double entry, multiple entry, and re-entry.

4. Visitors Visa
Visitors visas are issued for the visitors to visit their relatives. This visa is issued on the basis of valid invitation. Visitor's visa is generally valid for one year. At the point of entry, visa is stamped for 6 months which can be extended to one year.

5. Business Visa
Business visa is issued to the businessmen who need to travel frequently. The visa is issued on the recommendation of chamber of commerce. The businessmen need to present a letter from the company sponsoring the visit and it should be supported by and evidence of financial standing.

6. Student Visa
Student visa is issued to the valid students on the recommendation of the institutions where they study.

7. Diplomatic Visa
Ministry of foreign affairs will issue diplomatic visa to the holders of Diplomatic passport and to their family.

8. Non-tourist Visa
On the recommendation of concerned government departments the Immigration Department will provide this type of visa. This type of visa is issued to the foreigners involved in official works, INGOs, special mission, local citizen holding foreign passport, foreigner married to local etc.

9. Residential Visa
Immigration Department on the recommendation of Home Ministry will provide this type of visa to the renowned personalities, foreigners involved in economic, social and cultural development of the country.

10.Official Visa
This type of visa is provided to the officials working in different government offices as a consultant, adviser. Immigration Department will provide visa on the recommendation of the concern government department.

11. Working Permit
It is issued to the workers. The visa is issued on the recommendation of valid employer and labor department of the concern government. The countries should have labor contracts.

Checking Of Visa

It is necessary to check the following points regarding visa very carefully:

1. Expiry date of visa: Check the duration and date of validity.

2. Validity of visa: Check the terms and conditions mentioned in passport. A visa issued for a single entry is not valid for second visit.

3. Check passport and other travel documents. The visa in an expired passport is invalid. Valid visa in an expired passport or invalid passport and not accepted travel documents are automatically invalid.

4. Check the visa of the destination, transit and country of departure if passenger is returning to the country of origin.

5. Passengers traveling in transit through a country must be able to prove that they will continue their journey within the prescribed period.The transit passenger must have a valid ticket for the remaining stretches of the journey. Check the visa rules of the transit stations.

Travel Documents Or Documents Required For International Travelers

 People travel for pleasure, leisure, relax. But every travel involves formalities and an international traveler needs to fulfill border formalities. International travel is more complex as every international travel involves more than two countries. When the travelers travel from one country to other they need to fulfill border formalities. Every passenger needs to follow rules and regulation to leave one country and to enter the other country. Every country country has border formalities and provides custom facilities. The rules and regulations and border formalities are changed, adjusted to match with national and international situations. So, it is not possible to memorize and up to date with all the current rules and regulations of more than 200 countries of this world.It is difficult for a traveler to know the current rules of every country they travel. To support the travelers and to the airlines staff, International Air Transport Association (IATA) publishes Travel Information Manual. Travelers and airlines staffs will go through the manual and know about the documents requirement for international travel. At the same time it supports airlines airport staffs to check necessary travel documents. Following are the main travel documents for international travelers.

1. Passport
Passport is an official document issued by a competent authority to its nationals or to alien residents. It is the most important identification document and travel permit for leaving one's country and entering foreign country. Every international passenger must be holding a valid passport for all the countries to or via which they travel.

2. Visa
Visa is an entry in a passport or other travel document made by an official of a government to indicate that the bearer has been given permission to enter or re-enter the country. It is denoted by stamps or sticker of the concern country. However, it does not guarantee admission to that country but only certifies that a passport is registered by the visa issuing authority.The final decision rests with the competent authorities at the port of entry.

3. Health
Every international traveler need to follow health rules and regulations. So, it is the responsibility of a airlines airport staff to check carefully the health regulations of the country of destination, country of departure and transit stations. A passenger need to fulfill the health formalities.

4. Airport Tax
Airport tax is paid at the time of departure. Every departing/embarking passenger must clear the airport tax. The tax may differ from airport to airport and from country to country.

5. Customs
Every international traveler is personally responsible to clear the custom formalities of the visiting country. The procedure for baggage clearance is not internationally standardized. Every country has their own rules and regulations.Custom authorities of each country follow their own rules and regulations.

6. Currency
A passenger is required to fulfill the currency formalities of the concern country. Some countries have currency regulation. Passenger are required to declare the import and they shall not export more than what they brought in.

Types Of Visitors And Understanding Their Profile

Tourism is service business and service is related to personal relation. Understanding of each other's  likes, dislikes, behavior is necessary to provide better service. For the identification of the visitors, the segmentation of the total market is of the greatest importance. Segmentation of the market is thus made to understand the character, interest, likes, dislikes of each individual group of visitors.Segmentation means the identification of total visitors. The behavior of each group is determined by their age, sex, nationality, religion, economy etc.

1. The holiday tourist
The holiday tourists are the most sensitive to the change of price, peace, climate, purchasing capacity, accessibility as their objective of travel is enjoyment. They are readily influenced by skilled marketing efforts.So, the holiday tourist market has been regarded as the most seasonal. These types of tourists are generated  from developed and luxurious society.

2. The business tourist
The business tourist's choice of destination is determine by the nature of their business. Demand of business tourism is relatively price-inelastic, tends not to be extremely seasonal, and tends to be big city oriented. Business visits are relatively frequent, but short stay. On the other hand, these kind of visitors are attracted by events, exhibitions, trade fairs and conferences.

3. Adventure tourist
Adventure tourists are less sensitive to peace, political stability, accessibility etc. as compared to holiday tourists. Their stay would be longer than the business tourists. They are mostly young people. So, they prefer budget and standard and not deluxe accommodation.

4. The common interest tourist
This segment comprises visits to friends and relatives and visitors for educational purpose for pilgrimages and the like. Demand for this kind of tourism is price-elastic, and also sensitive to the absolute level of price.

5.Age group
According to the age group of visitors, they are categorized as students, youth and adult. Their choice of interest and purchasing capacity are different. Students mostly go for educational tour with limited budget and for limited time. Young people mostly prefer adventure tours and are budget tourists. On the other hand, old people prefer luxurious tours and also go for cultural tours.

For marketing purpose, visitors mare divided into domestic and international. Their character, interest and purchasing capacities are different, so pricing policy also different. The international tourists are also further divided as per their nationality. Every nationality has their own culture, interest, likes, dislikes and purchasing capacity is also different. So for the marketing purpose, they must be differentiated.

Nature Of Selling In Tourism

Tourism is made of economic and non-economic, countable and uncountable, tangible and intangible,and which is managed by different organizations at different levels with different objectives. The term 'selling' need    to be understood specially for the purpose of  tourism. It is due to three basic nature of tourism. Due to 'service nature' it is intangible, where ownership does not changed, immovable and service is provided in duration. Due to 'here and there' nature of tourism,its point of sale and point of service delivery are located in different places. Its 'time gap and space gap'  has created a gap between selling and service delivery. Due to ' joint effort' nature of tourism one agency sales service of other agencies. For example, a travel agency sales hotel rooms,air tickets, and trekking, similarly an airlines sales hotel rooms.
Following points indicate the nature of selling in tourism

1. The definition of selling
It is different from the company to company, from agency to agency and organization. It differs as per objectives. It needs to be defined as per the product and service it offers. For example, tourism teacher delivers lecture, tourism company sales tours. A travel agency sells country and trekking company sells mountains.

2. Service nature
Selling in tourism does not mean change of ownership. It is not 'one time one action'. As service nature of tourism, sales is extended during the consumption also.Due to intangible nature, sales need proof and proof to utilize the service. Due to service nature, pre consumption and post consumption is not possible.

3. Here and there nature
Here and there nature of tourism creates time gap and space gap. 'Pay here get there' need to be solved by reservation system and by service voucher. Points of sale and service delivery centers are located at different locations so tourists need to be transferred to the point of service delivery.

4. Everyone sells
In tourism, selling activity is done by every one, every time, every day. A destination sells its authenticity, local people are selling their hospitality. An airport staff is providing services at airport but selling the country image at the same time.Everyone should support tourism sales. Business efficiency is to create money out of it. 

5. Tourism selling is professional occupation
To sell tourism needs formal education and training. It needs qualification, accepted code of ethics and some certification from government recognized institutions. At the same time it needs education so that one can sell travel experience with knowledge.

Concept And Details Of Hotel Reservation Request (Hotel RR)

Hotel Reservation Request (Hotel RR)
Hotel reservation request is a process of booking hotel services. A big and regular business travel agency may have developed printed reservation request (RR). If not one can write a letter to book and confirm hotel services. Either way a reservation request should include all the detail information as follows:

* Full name of client(s). 
If there are any child, mention their age. If it is a group booking, prepare naming list of the group.
* Required date
This is arrival and departure date. If guests are visiting second and third times mention the dates of second and third visits.
 * Required nights
* Required number of beds and types of beds such as Single, Double, Triple, Extra/Twin bed, Suites etc.
* Clearly indicate Hotel Plan : EP, BB, CP, MAP or AP.
* Full description of arrival and departure, how and from where guest is arriving to the hotel flight/road/trek/raft etc. and where gust departs.
* If the hotel has to arrange pick-up, mention: Pick-up point, time, airport/terminal, station, exact flight and flight number, train number and arrival time etc. in detail. In the same way if the hotel is to provide departure, mention all the related information.
* Name the agency with official signature with official seal and date of issue.
* If you do not have the rate agreement, request the same and get it confirmed on the voucher copies.
* If you want special services such as special welcome, garden facing rooms, mountain facing rooms etc mention clearly in your RR and confirm the same.

Many travel agencies use printed RR to book/confirm/cancel the hotel rooms. If printed RR is not in practice, the written letter must include all the related information as above.

Modes Of Reservation

Reservation request known as RR is the main communication channel between an agency and the service agency on behalf of customer. So, reservation should be able to communicate all the requirements, desire and wishes of the client. There are different modes of reservation as follows:

- Letters or print form
- Telex, fax, email
- Verbal, telephone, personal contact
- Computer reservation system

Commitment to provide service is expressed by accepting on the reservation request. It is advised to have written proof of every reservation process. Develop a system of official record keeping of confirmation from service agency.
In many travel agencies where they have big volume of business, they prepare printed reservation book and confirm the service. The printed firm contains space to fill the required information required to inform to the concerned agencies. If there is no printed RR a travel agent needs to write a letter. The letter or RR, should be countersigned by the service agency as an acceptance and returned to the travel agency for filing purpose.

Reservation Process

The reservation process involves different steps. The most important aspect of sales process is to have detail information about the service. The sales manager should be familiar about the service, supplier of the service, location, service quality, rules and regulations of the region, country, accessibility, availability of the service etc. The next important step is to have an agreement  with service agency or supplier of the tourism services. As a middleman travel agency need to do agreement with service agency. An agreement may include different terms and conditions such as validity, terms of payment, cancellation policy etc. The agreement is the authority to sale.
The second step of reservation is to have clients request for special service. They provide all the necessary information like type of service, required date etc. It is the client's demand of service. Simple reservation is not enough, it needs to be accepted and confirmed by the service provider. The request must be accepted by the service agency.
Next step is to collect payment from the customer and issue Service Order (Service Voucher). A copy of voucher is sent to service agency and original copy is sent along with customer to receive the booked service. Service Order solves the problem created by ' here and there' that is pay here get there, pay now get later. The process of reservation creates trust among the buyers and sellers. Reservation guarantees business to the agency. Guest gets confidence of quality of service as his money is deposited in the agency.

Reservation process includes following process:

- Identify the customer :- the budget, interest, choice, duration, date, quality etc.
- Detail information of product and service organization:- quality, capacity, location, rate, rules and regulations, accessibility, amenities and availability of service.
- Agreement of sale/reserve the service.
- Need customer agreement to book on their behalf.
- Maintain communication with customer and with service agency.

Meaning And Need Of Reservation

Meaning Of Reservation
Reservation is to book. It is a process of holding for future use. It is a technique of holding authority or right to use in future. Reservation shows a commitment or promise from the buyer to use in near future.

Need Of Reservation

* Due to the basic nature of tourism, its service is intangible, ownership does not change, so customer wants to have proof what he/she has bought and what seller has promised to provide. It serves as a right to use the service. By the help of reservation system, service agency solves the problem of non storable.' Here and there nature' of  tourism creates space gap and time gap. Reservation tries to solve the problem of pay here get there, pay now get later. It serves as a line of communication between point of sale (POS) and point of service delivery (POSD). Reservation does flow of information between two agencies. It is necessary for the service agency to solve problem of non storable.

* Due to the limited capacity of service agencies like hotels, airlines, trekking, rafting etc., travel agency must reserve the space.

* As a middleman a travel agency need authority to sale and reservation system is an authority to sale.

* Reservation serves as communication system between the customer and agencies and between the service agencies.

* Reservation is a proof of what agency has promised to deliver and what customer has paid for.

* Service is a process and measured in duration and reservation will help to quantify the service duration.

Tour Sales Process

Tourism being a service it is a process. So its selling is also a process. It is not 'give by one hand and receive by another hand'. Service is a process so it is a commitment made by seller to provide service. At the same time it is a commitment from the receiver to receive pre-agreed service.Selling service is an agreement between two parties. All these complications are due to the 'three basic nature of tourism. Due to the service nature, tourism is intangible, variability of quality, non-storable and service need to be provided in duration. Being intangible the transecting needs proof. Buyer wants to have 'right to use' mentioning the duration, date and type of service. Due to the nature of 'here and there' it creates time gap and space gap. The travel agency being a middleman it needs to reserve service from service agencies to guarantee that the guests will receive the service.

Tourism service being a process, sales is also a process. It is not one time one action. It is a continuous process. It involves different activities and different agencies. A salesman needs to continue his/her sales effort during the consumption also. A consumer must be satisfied from beginning to the end. A tourism sales involves the following process/.

- Collect information and inform the guest
- Collect tariff from different service agencies
- Do costing of itinerary
- Reserve the service of different agencies
- Manage travel documents and complete travel formalities
- Collect payment and issue Service Order/ Service Voucher
- Monitor and coordinate the service agencies. Keep in touch with customer and check their satisfaction.

Points To Be Considered While Preparing Itinerary

An itinerary is the main sales item of a travel agency. It is the sales product of an agency. An itinerary should be able to transform the intangible character of the tourism product into tangible item. So, one should be very sensitive while preparing itinerary because it reflects the image of an agency.
Following points should be considered while preparing an itinerary:

1. Duration of tour
While preparing itinerary one must consider the allocation of time and duration of the tour- how many days in one country and how many days or hours in one place of interest.

2. Interest
Itinerary should be based on interest of the tourist. It must be interesting and attractive. A ready-made itinerary must be capable of attracting maximum number of tourists and easily salable, and should be competitive. Every activity of an itinerary should be interesting and total tour should be interesting. Every market has special interests and itinerary should try to focus on them.

                     Also Read: Concept And Meaning Of Itinerary

3. Season
Certain places are more interesting in one season than another. Certain activities are possible only at a certain time of the year and more beautiful at a certain time of the day. Tourism is a seasonable business so one should consider the seasons when one destination activity is better than other.

4. Budget
Itinerary is based on the budget too. For example, accommodation in big cities could be in five star hotels. In the same way trekking in Himalayas region is more expensive than trekking is hills. The same trek can be organized as tea-house or fully organized trek. Budget varies with different activities involved in the itinerary. The prepared itinerary must be competitive in the market. It must justify the time value and dollar value of the tour.

                    Also Read: Significance Of Itinerary

5. Possible to express in monetary terms
Every itinerary must be possible to be expressed in terms of cost. Every item, element, activity mentioned in it should be possible to be evaluated in monetary terms. All service elements mentioned need to be expressed in cost.

6. Possible to fulfill
Preparing and itinerary is commitment or promise. So, mention only things which can be fulfilled. As an itinerary is legal document, it involves consumer's right. Every activity and total itinerary must be possible to fulfill.

Significance of Itinerary

An itinerary is very important due to the following points:

1. Compound Product

A tourism product is not made of a single element but it is a compound product. It is made of 4 As- Accessibility, Accommodation, Attraction and Amenities. Two or more than two tourism elements are joined together to form a tourism product. The joining of these elements is possible with the help of an itinerary. Only transport or hotel room or attraction is not tourism. The attraction was there since long time, transport was there, but there was no tourism because there was not any mix product. So, we can say that modern tourism is a result of itineraries. Without itineraries, there may be hotel, transport or attraction but no tourism.

                    Also Read: Types Of Itineraries

2. Tangible
The tourism product that we are selling is an intangible product. So, it cannot be seen or inspected by a customer prior to purchase or consumption. Those intangible products are converted into tangible, invisible to visible by the help of an itinerary as it contains all the information. Thus, tourism product produced by a travel agency is the itinerary.

3. Sales-kit
As tourism product is intangible, buying and selling of the tourism product is very difficult. In this situation an itinerary is of great help to the salesperson as it includes detailed information of the tour, timetable, special features and events. It has mentioned the place to visit, activities, place to stay etc. An itinerary is helpful to the salesperson for costing purpose. It solves the problem of sales because the product is intangible and immovable.

                   Also Read: Elements Of Itinerary

4. Flow Of Information
 Point of sale and point of service delivery are in different places. Itinerary helps as an flow of information between two points.

5. Legal Document
Itinerary is sold and bought as a product so it provides consumers right. An itinerary has to be developed as a legal document. It includes commitments and either party should fulfill them. As in tourism we are dealing with intangible items, ownership of which is non-transferable and where middlemen are involved, there is always a possibility of misunderstanding and misrepresentation. The itinerary is the agreed document between the buyer and seller. It is the proof of the document that one agrees to buy and other agrees to sell. It helps to settle the legal disputes.

                  Also Read: Points To Be Considered While Preparing Itinerary

6. Ready-made Package
In this modern age of tourism, it is always a big problem fir the buyers to select and decide the right product and right seller. The multiplicity of the manufacturers and multiplicity of the distribution channel create a big problem of make the right choice. An itinerary answers all questions and confusions regarding the tour package and makes a bundle of travel activities.

Concept and Meaning Of Itinerary


Itinerary is known as a tour plan. It is related to the tour programs, timetable and the information of the places to be visited. A program includes only activities, whereas, an itinerary includes date, day, time duration and points of interests between the destinations, on the way to the destination, the special features of the tour and happenings at the destination etc. An itinerary is the combination of the different components of tourism to form a product ready for sale. So, it explains and shows how different components of tourism are joined together. Travel was there since a long time but there was no tourism. Hotels were there, transport or movements of the people were there but there was no tourism because there was no joint or coordinated effort. By the introduction of the travel agency, there came the concept of tourism. When there developed the joint effort then there came the concept of tourism. Travel agencies produce the tourism product, that is to produce itinerary. Now the tour is sold as a single product. Tourism is defined as sum of the total activities related to travel and stay and itinerary joins that travel and stay together to form a product. Itinerary is the commodification of tour.

Itinerary is developed to perform the sales process. It tries to solve the problems created by service nature, "here and there" nature and synchronized effort nature. Tangible products are weighted, measured but service is measured in duration. Itinerary is prepared to identify the duration of service, tangible and intangible nature of service, solves the problem of immovability of tourism products. The other interesting fact  of tourism is to have point of sales (POS) and point of service delivery (POSD) in different places. Itinerary solves the problems of joint efforts also. An itinerary is the combination of the different components of the tourism to form a product ready to sale. So, it explains how different components of tourism are joined together. The travel agencies produce the tourism product that is to produce the itinerary.

Types Of Tourism Products

Tourism products can be divided into the following types:

1. Convenience tourism products
Convenience tourism products are bought to satisfy immediate desire. These products are inexpensive items that require little shopping effort. Tourists buy convenience products usually without significant planning. Fast food, cold drinks, small souvenirs, a visit to museum are the examples of convenience tourism product

2. Shopping tourism products
These tourism products are generally more expensive than convenience products and tourists buy these products only after comparing. Buying these products involves shopping efforts. Tourists want to compare quality, service agency. They are half-day tour, dinner program, etc.

                      Also Read: Concept And Meaning Of Tourism Product

3. Specialty tourism products
Specialty tourism products are expensive and involves high risk from tourist side. They spend sustainable time and effort to buy these type of products. In reality every tourism product involves certain element of specialty product. Buying a foreign tour, airline ticket, mountaineering and expedition are some examples of specialty tourism products. 

4. Unsought tourism products
Unsought tourism products are unknown products to the tourists. Every tourism products include this element to provide pleasure of shopping. In terms of tourism buying is ' Shopping for pleasure'. They are the new destinations, resorts or activities.

                    Also Read: Components Of Tourism Product

5. Industrial tourism products
These products are purchased for further processing or for use in conducting a business. The distinction between a consumer product and industrial product is based on the purpose for which the product is bought. A trekking needs hotel and city and transport. In the same way every resort is supported by transport.

6. Capital items
These items support production or operation. They facilitate developing and managing the finished goods. It includes land and buildings, natural beauty, heritage, cultural hospitality, customer's trust, image, goodwill, standardization of the service are the capital in tourism in business.

Components Of Tourism Product

The tourism product may be defined as a bundle or package of tangible and intangible components based on activity at a destination. The package is perceived by the tourist as an experience available at a price. A tourism is made of 4 A's, every tourism product should have 4 A's i.e. attraction, accommodation, accessibility and amenities as follows:

1. Attraction
Attractions are those elements, which determine the choice of tourists. Attraction creates desire to travel, motivate to travel. They should be able to attract and attach so tourists participates in the tourism activities. Attractions may be natural attractions, man-made attractions, event attractions, built-in attractions and cultural and social attractions.

                       Also Read: Concept And Meaning Of Tourism Product

2. Accommodation
These are elements within the destination or related to tour, that make it possible for visitors to stay overnight. For the purpose of classification, all tourist accommodations have been divided into two groups, service accommodation and supplementary accommodation. Service accommodations are the hotels, lodges, resorts, inns etc. operating as business enterprises and provide house-keeping facilities. Supplementary accommodations are not registered as tourism organization but provide accommodation facilities such as Dharmasalas, camping grounds, Youth hostels etc.

3. Accessibility
These are the elements that affect the time value and dollar value of a traveler. It is related to the possibility to  visit, to feel, to see or to acquire the experience. It is the time and money, and effort to fulfill the desire created by attraction. They include transport, government regulation, travel facilities. Accessibility is not to have any travel barriers.

                      Also Read: Types Of Tourism Products

4. Amenities
Amenities are the services and facilities added with attraction, accommodation and accessibility to create tourism. It is the soul of tourism which gives life to tourism. Without amenities, a destination will be a place, accommodation will be a local hotel, a transport will be local transport etc.

Other component of a tourism is image or goodwill of a destination or organization. It strongly influence the customers' buying decisions. Their expectations are closely linked with satisfaction because they are considered as part of the product.

Concept And Meaning Of Tourism Product

Tourism is a single industry but it is made of different industries such as hotel, airlines, travel agency, trekking agency etc. Each one of them provides individual product or they combine together to provide travel experience. Any visit to a tourism destination comprises a mix of several components of different organizations. A traveler may buy all the travel components from a commercial supplier, for example, travel agency as a single product or may buy travel components individually from different suppliers. 

Tourism product is a group of components or elements brought together in a 'bundle' to satisfy the consumer's need. A tourism product is anything that can be offered for attraction, acquisition or consumption. It includes physical objects, services, personalities, places, organizations and ideas. Generally, tourism product is designed as an augmented product, which is the totality of benefits that a traveler receives or experiences in obtaining the formal product. People do not buy products, they buy expectation of benefits. Therefore, tourism product is an amalgam of what a traveler does and experience during a tour. The service used and the products purchased during the trip are products.

Tourism product is the total experience of the visitors. It includes everything and every person they come into contact with during their stay. The tourism product is more than simple attraction or accommodation. Tourism product is primarily an experience not a good. It is the total of travel experience not a good. From a consumer's view, tourism product is a bundle of benefits and choose those which give them the best bundle. Tourism product includes all the necessary elements of product plus luxury and status.

So, tourism product is and experience of place ( Location and people) at a particular time. The basics of tourism product formulation are selling experience, which they cannot get at home. They buy experience, which is different from everyday's job.

Features Of Tourism Market

Marketing of tourist product has certain characteristics. Although general principles of marketing could be applicable to marketing the product, there are certain differences in approach. These differences are because of the peculiar character of the tourist products. Some special characteristics of tourist products are as follows:

1. Tourism is an intangible product
Tourism is related to service, facility, pleasure, leisure, etc. which is not possible to visualize.

2. Ownership of tourist product is non-transferable
In tourism, buying and selling of a product does not mean buying things like other properties. It is buying or selling the service. In the process of buying and selling of the tourism product, no transfer of ownership of goods is involved as compared to tangible product.

                        Also Read: Introduction And Meaning Of Tourism

3. Production and consumption are closely interrelated
Production of the tourism product is not to create a new item. It is related with idea. Tourism product is the amalgamation of attraction, facilities and accessibility. The travel agents who sell the product neither produce them nor own them. The travel agent cannot store them. Production can only take place and can only be completed if the customer is actually present. Most of the tourist services cannot be consumed in a time difference. Once consumption starts it cannot be stopped, interrupted or modified. The customer cannot inspect, compare or try before deciding to buy the tourism product.

4. Tourism is an assembled product
The tourist product cannot be provided by a single enterprise. Each of the components of a tourism product is highly specialized and all these combined together makes the final product. The tourist product is not an airline or rail seat or a visit to historical sites but rather an amalgamation of many components which together make a complete product. In tourism, each of the components of the tourist product is sold as an individual product. Airline ticket, hotels, resorts have their own sales outlets. Because of these peculiar characteristics coordinated effort is required in tourism marketing.

5. Tourism product does not move
The tourism product cannot be transported. It does not move to the customer but customer needs to move to the product. As attraction, hotels do not move. Transport moves but it moves to its destination only. The customer must get it to enjoy it.

6. The demand of tourism product is very unstable
The demand of tourism product is influenced by different factors such as season, economy, politics, religion and other special events etc. The seasonal change greatly affects the demand. The tourism plant is used for a limited time of the year. Many tourists areas have a short season. The seasonal business create unemployment, develop idle investment on staff, transport, office rent and increase the cost of production.

                           Also Read: Concepts Of Tourism

7. Wide coverage
Marketing of general product may be limited or producers can limit their sales campaign and marketing to the local area but in tourism, it must be done outside or in different locations where tourism product is produced, because tourists are the outsiders.

8. A luxurious concept
Tourism product being leisure, pleasure and comfort is the most luxurious concept, so it must be marketed. In the modern world of mass tourism it has become more important to be marketed than before.

Concept Of Tourism Marketing

Tourism Marketing

Tourism being the fastest growing and most competitive industry in the world, it should be marketed just as any other products, because it is an industry in which customer has immense variety of choice. Each destination, region, country are competing each other to gain bigger share of the market. Each destination contains many business organizations and they compete each other. A destination or service agency may enjoy the situation of monopoly due to its attraction or service goodwill but for a tourist to enjoy the travel experience, every service and destination is a choice. For example, the highest mountain, on this earth Mt. Everest is in Nepal but a tourist may visit Mt. Fuji to relax and for more pleasure.

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Tourism marketing is a complex concept as the industry includes many activities, which together produce the tourist product that is travel experience. It is also complex due to various sub-sectors of the tourist products. Each of them are themselves represented as complete industry. Each of the tourism components are organizing marketing campaign independently. For example, travel agency or trekking agency promote their program including hotel rooms and transport. Similarly, many airlines and hotels promote the destinations and        government and National Tourism Organization are promoting the destination and each of them are independent organizations having own objectives.

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The tourism marketing may be defined as  process which include anticipating and satisfying existing  as well as  potential visitors' wants more effectively than competitive suppliers.It includes exchange for organizational profit and community and for natural gain.

Therefore, tourism marketing is the systematic and coordinated efforts by government, national tourism organization or the tourist enterprises to optimize the satisfaction of tourists, groups and individuals in the view of the tourism growth. In this way, tourism marketing need to be understood as a joint efforts of the components involved in it.

Concepts Of Tourism

Some common concepts of tourism are as follows:

1. Tourism as a social system
Although tourism is an individual human experience, it is usually shared with other people. A tourist is a person from other culture. S/he does not belong to visiting society. They come in contact with local people and social institutions. The socialization process may be short, informal to intense interpersonal interaction. Friendship may be formed or conflicts may be created. This approach tries to study tourism from social perspectives.

2. Tourism as geographical phenomena 
Tourism is studied as a relation between two places, origin to destination in this concept of tourism. Travel from the origin to a destination is an inherent and distinctive characteristics of tourism. For participation in tourism, a person must travel certain distance from normal place of residence. Tourism management is to link two places.

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3. Tourism as a resource
Many communities, local governments and even central government prefer to define tourism as a resource. The most common saying is that ' a tourist brings money'. Their tourism management is related to revenue management. Local bodies and communities are interested in adding tourism into their system, because of its potentiality to bring money from other regions with minimal effort and environmental impact. Tourism can also be a positive force for the preservation of local sites, traditional skill and cultural activities.

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4. Tourism as a business
This is the most popular approach among the businessmen and to the people who work in the tourism industry. Under this, tourism is related to business. This approach assumes that tourism is related to improve business efficiency, marketing and improving manpower.

5. Tourism as an industry
This approach of tourism believes that tourism is not just several businesses but is an industry. It is a group of several related businesses: transportation, accommodation, food service, attractions and events and many retail activities.

Introduction And Meaning Of Tourism

Tourism industry has been agreed as a service industry. In tourism, service is anything which is provided to the traveler to travel, stay and involve in tourism activity.

Tourism is related to travelling and it is  a human character by nature..Travel has fascinated human beings throughout the ages.During the past  time travel was there but 'tourism' was not there. Because travel was not undertaken for the purpose of pleasure and their motive was not to seek holiday from the daily routine works. When people learned to differentiate between work and leisure then tourism started. When business agencies were developed to sale travel related services then tourism industry started.

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Traveling is a human character but tourism is a new phenomena. Tourism is the most recent and important phenomena of the modern times.

Tourism is understood differently from different levels. Government tries to discuss the social and natural components of tourism. Businessmen view the tourism as an industry. They try to manage tourism product, production, distribution, promotion, pricing, customer relation etc. One may try to define tourism in fifty different ways but reality is that tourist must visit the destination and get involved in tourism activities. The visit and activities must generate economy at the place visited.

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Tourism is related to broader economic and social issues including commodification  and globalization of culture hospitality, friendship, pleasure,and place and its attractions. Within this realm, tourism is regarded as experience industry where travel experience is sold as a commodity just like other household, recreation -oriented products.

Therefore, tourism is related to travel, stay and involvement of the outsiders in tourism activities. Their travel and stay need to generate economy and economy is generated by service. For this there should be buying and selling process. Only tourism business are able to involve in motivating travelers to travel, organize travel formalities, and provide travel related services and they can sale tour.

Roles And Importance Of Organization

Organization is the means with which human association can be made through which common goals can be obtained. Therefore, organization is an important tool to achieve the firm's goals. Some of the important roles of organization are as follows:

1. Organization helps optimum utilization of human resources
A effective organization utilizes the human resources properly. It places the individuals- the right individuals in the right jobs in the right position and department. Such marching of individual and job helps better use of human talent and capability. A sound organization effectively performs the selection, training, remuneration and promotion functions, which helps to encourage the personnel to identify themselves with the enterprise.

2. Effective and efficient administration
Organization is needed for efficient and effective administration, because it defines very clearly, the various activities and authority relationship in the organization structure.

3. Organization facilitates growth and diversification
A sound and effective organization contributes to the growth and diversification of the enterprise through the effective management. It is always accepted that a sound organization helps the management to implement decentralization and divisionalization, through which management can enhance its strength and undertake more activities and thus become large in its shape and size.

4. Organization provides optimum use of new technology
A sound organization is always flexible. As it is so, it has capacity of absorbing changes in the environment. Hence, according to the situation and on the demand, it helps and allows the management for the proper and optimum use of technological improvement.

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5. Effective coordination and communication
It is only sound organization of an enterprise which creates coordination and establish communication among various departments and individuals along with different levels of the enterprises. It helps to establish structural relationship between different jobs and positions. It also fixes the channels of communication among different members of the business home.

6. Training and development
A sound and effective organizing function offers a good scope for the development of managerial ability and competency by providing training.

7. Productivity and job satisfaction
Productivity of human resources can be increased when personnel of any organization are made free to exercise their ideas. This is possible only in those organization where exists democratic and participative management. If there exists participative management, the members can use their talent freely and maximum, thus, their productivity will be increased and they will get maximum satisfaction in their jobs.

Concept And Meaning Of Organization

Meaning Of Organization

Organization refers to a mechanism which enables people to live together and perform the activities collectively. Organization is the foundation on which the whole structure of management is built. Organization is the backbone of management, without which managers cannot perform what they have to perform.

Organization or organizing is one of the important function of management. To achieve corporate goals, strong, reliable and effective organization is needed. Goals may net be achieved if all the sections, departments and divisions are not well organized, coordinated and integrated. Organizing involves those means, techniques, methods and procedures which help to integrate and coordinate different functions and units of the business.

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Concepts Of Organization
'Organization'' as a word is being used in two sense. These two concepts of organization are as follows:

1. Organization as a structure/Organization in static sense
Organization as a structure is a static concept. It is a framework of the business and a structure of relationship between various positions of the organization. It can be understood as a structural framework of duties and responsibilities through which an organization functions.

2. Organization as a process/Organization in dynamic sense
Organization as a process is a dynamic concept. It is most acceptable concept of organization. As a process, organization determines, arranges, groups and assigns the activities of the enterprise to achieve the common goals.

Steps Involved For Settlement Of Insurance Claims

The insured party has to make a claim against the insurance company for the loss according to the terms and conditions agreed upon in the insurance policy in case of loss occurs. The insured has to take a detailed procedure for the settlement of the claim, which consists of the following steps.

1. Giving notice
If a loss occurs, the insured must gather the detailed information about the loss and immediately serve a notice to the insurance company about the loss occurred. The insured must give a written notice giving details of damage of the subject-matters.

2. Making a claim
Within a stated period after the loss has occurred, the insured must submit the claim in writing to the insurance company. The claim must mention the details of damage, the value of the damaged subject-matters at the time when loss occurred, and the particular of other insurance, if there any. The value of damaged property or subject-matter mentioned in the claim must not include any profit.

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3. Providing evidence
The claim for the loss must be supported by adequate evidence of the loss and of the value of loss. Therefore, the insured must gather sufficient evidence and provide it to the insurance company. The insured must always be ready to produce such evidence as and when required.

4. Assessing claim
Upon the receipt of claim and supporting evidence from the insured, the insurance company attempts to assess the true nature of damage, volume and value of damage based on the supporting evidence. Such an assessment is done by the surveyor and the evaluator appointed by the insurance company.

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5. Settling the claim
After the scrutiny of the claim, supporting evidence and assessment of report of the surveyor, the insurance company decides the amount of compensation for the actual loss. The amount of compensation may be the same as per the claim made or less than that depending on the true assessment of the value of loss. Then, the insurance company sends a letter to the insured for the settlement of claim. The claim is settled by giving payment to the insured.

Steps Of Effecting Marine Insurance Policy

Taking marine insurance policy has to follow a detailed procedures which consists of the following steps:

1. Selecting an insurance company
The person who wishes to take marine insurance has to select and appropriate insurance company that carries out such insurance. The selection of appropriate insurance company depends on a number of factors like history of the company, financial soundness and credibility of the company.

2. Filling up a proposal form
The perspective person then should fill up a proposal form that is available from the insurance company or its agent. The proposal form is a printed sheet in a standard format that requires certain information filled regarding the name, address and occupation of the intended policyholder, nature and value of property or cargo, the type of policy sought and the sum of premium to be paid.

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3. Gathering evidence
After receiving the proposal form, the insurance company gathers evidence of respectability of the prospective policyholder. The evidence of respectability includes the information about honesty, credibility and the financial position of the intended policyholder. The insurance company gathers such information from third parties such as banks.

4. Evaluating property
Once the insurance company gathers the evidence of respectability of the proposer, it starts surveying and evaluating the subject matters being insured. Based on the survey and evaluation, the level of risk involved in the subject matters is ascertained and the sum of premium to be paid by the proposer is determined.

5. Accepting the proposal
After the scrutiny of the proposal by collecting the evidence of respectability and surveyor and evaluators' report, the insurance company decides whether to accept the proposal. If everything is acceptable and the officials of the insurance company are satisfied with the details inquired, the insurance company accepts the proposal and requests the proposer for the payment of the premium.

6. Issuing a cover note
Upon receipt of the premium from the proposer, the insurance company issues a receipt of payment which is called cover note and this is like a temporary policy as it covers and protects the subject matters from any loss occurred before the issue of the final marine insurance policy.

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7. Issuing marine insurance policy
Finally marine insurance policy is prepared and issued to the policyholder after it is duly stamped and signed by the official of the insurance company and policyholder. This policy contains personal information of the policyholder, details of the subject-matters and terms and conditions which are agreed upon by the insurer and insured. Upon the issue of marine insurance policy, it is fully operational and covers the loss that may occur in sea voyage.