Concept and Meaning Of Itinerary


Itinerary is known as a tour plan. It is related to the tour programs, timetable and the information of the places to be visited. A program includes only activities, whereas, an itinerary includes date, day, time duration and points of interests between the destinations, on the way to the destination, the special features of the tour and happenings at the destination etc. An itinerary is the combination of the different components of tourism to form a product ready for sale. So, it explains and shows how different components of tourism are joined together. Travel was there since a long time but there was no tourism. Hotels were there, transport or movements of the people were there but there was no tourism because there was no joint or coordinated effort. By the introduction of the travel agency, there came the concept of tourism. When there developed the joint effort then there came the concept of tourism. Travel agencies produce the tourism product, that is to produce itinerary. Now the tour is sold as a single product. Tourism is defined as sum of the total activities related to travel and stay and itinerary joins that travel and stay together to form a product. Itinerary is the commodification of tour.

Itinerary is developed to perform the sales process. It tries to solve the problems created by service nature, "here and there" nature and synchronized effort nature. Tangible products are weighted, measured but service is measured in duration. Itinerary is prepared to identify the duration of service, tangible and intangible nature of service, solves the problem of immovability of tourism products. The other interesting fact  of tourism is to have point of sales (POS) and point of service delivery (POSD) in different places. Itinerary solves the problems of joint efforts also. An itinerary is the combination of the different components of the tourism to form a product ready to sale. So, it explains how different components of tourism are joined together. The travel agencies produce the tourism product that is to produce the itinerary.

Types Of Tourism Products

Tourism products can be divided into the following types:

1. Convenience tourism products
Convenience tourism products are bought to satisfy immediate desire. These products are inexpensive items that require little shopping effort. Tourists buy convenience products usually without significant planning. Fast food, cold drinks, small souvenirs, a visit to museum are the examples of convenience tourism product

2. Shopping tourism products
These tourism products are generally more expensive than convenience products and tourists buy these products only after comparing. Buying these products involves shopping efforts. Tourists want to compare quality, service agency. They are half-day tour, dinner program, etc.

                      Also Read: Concept And Meaning Of Tourism Product

3. Specialty tourism products
Specialty tourism products are expensive and involves high risk from tourist side. They spend sustainable time and effort to buy these type of products. In reality every tourism product involves certain element of specialty product. Buying a foreign tour, airline ticket, mountaineering and expedition are some examples of specialty tourism products. 

4. Unsought tourism products
Unsought tourism products are unknown products to the tourists. Every tourism products include this element to provide pleasure of shopping. In terms of tourism buying is ' Shopping for pleasure'. They are the new destinations, resorts or activities.

                    Also Read: Components Of Tourism Product

5. Industrial tourism products
These products are purchased for further processing or for use in conducting a business. The distinction between a consumer product and industrial product is based on the purpose for which the product is bought. A trekking needs hotel and city and transport. In the same way every resort is supported by transport.

6. Capital items
These items support production or operation. They facilitate developing and managing the finished goods. It includes land and buildings, natural beauty, heritage, cultural hospitality, customer's trust, image, goodwill, standardization of the service are the capital in tourism in business.

Components Of Tourism Product

The tourism product may be defined as a bundle or package of tangible and intangible components based on activity at a destination. The package is perceived by the tourist as an experience available at a price. A tourism is made of 4 A's, every tourism product should have 4 A's i.e. attraction, accommodation, accessibility and amenities as follows:

1. Attraction
Attractions are those elements, which determine the choice of tourists. Attraction creates desire to travel, motivate to travel. They should be able to attract and attach so tourists participates in the tourism activities. Attractions may be natural attractions, man-made attractions, event attractions, built-in attractions and cultural and social attractions.

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2. Accommodation
These are elements within the destination or related to tour, that make it possible for visitors to stay overnight. For the purpose of classification, all tourist accommodations have been divided into two groups, service accommodation and supplementary accommodation. Service accommodations are the hotels, lodges, resorts, inns etc. operating as business enterprises and provide house-keeping facilities. Supplementary accommodations are not registered as tourism organization but provide accommodation facilities such as Dharmasalas, camping grounds, Youth hostels etc.

3. Accessibility
These are the elements that affect the time value and dollar value of a traveler. It is related to the possibility to  visit, to feel, to see or to acquire the experience. It is the time and money, and effort to fulfill the desire created by attraction. They include transport, government regulation, travel facilities. Accessibility is not to have any travel barriers.

                      Also Read: Types Of Tourism Products

4. Amenities
Amenities are the services and facilities added with attraction, accommodation and accessibility to create tourism. It is the soul of tourism which gives life to tourism. Without amenities, a destination will be a place, accommodation will be a local hotel, a transport will be local transport etc.

Other component of a tourism is image or goodwill of a destination or organization. It strongly influence the customers' buying decisions. Their expectations are closely linked with satisfaction because they are considered as part of the product.

Concept And Meaning Of Tourism Product

Tourism is a single industry but it is made of different industries such as hotel, airlines, travel agency, trekking agency etc. Each one of them provides individual product or they combine together to provide travel experience. Any visit to a tourism destination comprises a mix of several components of different organizations. A traveler may buy all the travel components from a commercial supplier, for example, travel agency as a single product or may buy travel components individually from different suppliers. 

Tourism product is a group of components or elements brought together in a 'bundle' to satisfy the consumer's need. A tourism product is anything that can be offered for attraction, acquisition or consumption. It includes physical objects, services, personalities, places, organizations and ideas. Generally, tourism product is designed as an augmented product, which is the totality of benefits that a traveler receives or experiences in obtaining the formal product. People do not buy products, they buy expectation of benefits. Therefore, tourism product is an amalgam of what a traveler does and experience during a tour. The service used and the products purchased during the trip are products.

Tourism product is the total experience of the visitors. It includes everything and every person they come into contact with during their stay. The tourism product is more than simple attraction or accommodation. Tourism product is primarily an experience not a good. It is the total of travel experience not a good. From a consumer's view, tourism product is a bundle of benefits and choose those which give them the best bundle. Tourism product includes all the necessary elements of product plus luxury and status.

So, tourism product is and experience of place ( Location and people) at a particular time. The basics of tourism product formulation are selling experience, which they cannot get at home. They buy experience, which is different from everyday's job.

Features Of Tourism Market

Marketing of tourist product has certain characteristics. Although general principles of marketing could be applicable to marketing the product, there are certain differences in approach. These differences are because of the peculiar character of the tourist products. Some special characteristics of tourist products are as follows:

1. Tourism is an intangible product
Tourism is related to service, facility, pleasure, leisure, etc. which is not possible to visualize.

2. Ownership of tourist product is non-transferable
In tourism, buying and selling of a product does not mean buying things like other properties. It is buying or selling the service. In the process of buying and selling of the tourism product, no transfer of ownership of goods is involved as compared to tangible product.

                        Also Read: Introduction And Meaning Of Tourism

3. Production and consumption are closely interrelated
Production of the tourism product is not to create a new item. It is related with idea. Tourism product is the amalgamation of attraction, facilities and accessibility. The travel agents who sell the product neither produce them nor own them. The travel agent cannot store them. Production can only take place and can only be completed if the customer is actually present. Most of the tourist services cannot be consumed in a time difference. Once consumption starts it cannot be stopped, interrupted or modified. The customer cannot inspect, compare or try before deciding to buy the tourism product.

4. Tourism is an assembled product
The tourist product cannot be provided by a single enterprise. Each of the components of a tourism product is highly specialized and all these combined together makes the final product. The tourist product is not an airline or rail seat or a visit to historical sites but rather an amalgamation of many components which together make a complete product. In tourism, each of the components of the tourist product is sold as an individual product. Airline ticket, hotels, resorts have their own sales outlets. Because of these peculiar characteristics coordinated effort is required in tourism marketing.

5. Tourism product does not move
The tourism product cannot be transported. It does not move to the customer but customer needs to move to the product. As attraction, hotels do not move. Transport moves but it moves to its destination only. The customer must get it to enjoy it.

6. The demand of tourism product is very unstable
The demand of tourism product is influenced by different factors such as season, economy, politics, religion and other special events etc. The seasonal change greatly affects the demand. The tourism plant is used for a limited time of the year. Many tourists areas have a short season. The seasonal business create unemployment, develop idle investment on staff, transport, office rent and increase the cost of production.

                           Also Read: Concepts Of Tourism

7. Wide coverage
Marketing of general product may be limited or producers can limit their sales campaign and marketing to the local area but in tourism, it must be done outside or in different locations where tourism product is produced, because tourists are the outsiders.

8. A luxurious concept
Tourism product being leisure, pleasure and comfort is the most luxurious concept, so it must be marketed. In the modern world of mass tourism it has become more important to be marketed than before.

Concept Of Tourism Marketing

Tourism Marketing

Tourism being the fastest growing and most competitive industry in the world, it should be marketed just as any other products, because it is an industry in which customer has immense variety of choice. Each destination, region, country are competing each other to gain bigger share of the market. Each destination contains many business organizations and they compete each other. A destination or service agency may enjoy the situation of monopoly due to its attraction or service goodwill but for a tourist to enjoy the travel experience, every service and destination is a choice. For example, the highest mountain, on this earth Mt. Everest is in Nepal but a tourist may visit Mt. Fuji to relax and for more pleasure.

                        Also Read:Features Of Tourism Market

Tourism marketing is a complex concept as the industry includes many activities, which together produce the tourist product that is travel experience. It is also complex due to various sub-sectors of the tourist products. Each of them are themselves represented as complete industry. Each of the tourism components are organizing marketing campaign independently. For example, travel agency or trekking agency promote their program including hotel rooms and transport. Similarly, many airlines and hotels promote the destinations and        government and National Tourism Organization are promoting the destination and each of them are independent organizations having own objectives.

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The tourism marketing may be defined as  process which include anticipating and satisfying existing  as well as  potential visitors' wants more effectively than competitive suppliers.It includes exchange for organizational profit and community and for natural gain.

Therefore, tourism marketing is the systematic and coordinated efforts by government, national tourism organization or the tourist enterprises to optimize the satisfaction of tourists, groups and individuals in the view of the tourism growth. In this way, tourism marketing need to be understood as a joint efforts of the components involved in it.

Concepts Of Tourism

Some common concepts of tourism are as follows:

1. Tourism as a social system
Although tourism is an individual human experience, it is usually shared with other people. A tourist is a person from other culture. S/he does not belong to visiting society. They come in contact with local people and social institutions. The socialization process may be short, informal to intense interpersonal interaction. Friendship may be formed or conflicts may be created. This approach tries to study tourism from social perspectives.

2. Tourism as geographical phenomena 
Tourism is studied as a relation between two places, origin to destination in this concept of tourism. Travel from the origin to a destination is an inherent and distinctive characteristics of tourism. For participation in tourism, a person must travel certain distance from normal place of residence. Tourism management is to link two places.

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3. Tourism as a resource
Many communities, local governments and even central government prefer to define tourism as a resource. The most common saying is that ' a tourist brings money'. Their tourism management is related to revenue management. Local bodies and communities are interested in adding tourism into their system, because of its potentiality to bring money from other regions with minimal effort and environmental impact. Tourism can also be a positive force for the preservation of local sites, traditional skill and cultural activities.

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4. Tourism as a business
This is the most popular approach among the businessmen and to the people who work in the tourism industry. Under this, tourism is related to business. This approach assumes that tourism is related to improve business efficiency, marketing and improving manpower.

5. Tourism as an industry
This approach of tourism believes that tourism is not just several businesses but is an industry. It is a group of several related businesses: transportation, accommodation, food service, attractions and events and many retail activities.

Introduction And Meaning Of Tourism

Tourism industry has been agreed as a service industry. In tourism, service is anything which is provided to the traveler to travel, stay and involve in tourism activity.

Tourism is related to travelling and it is  a human character by nature..Travel has fascinated human beings throughout the ages.During the past  time travel was there but 'tourism' was not there. Because travel was not undertaken for the purpose of pleasure and their motive was not to seek holiday from the daily routine works. When people learned to differentiate between work and leisure then tourism started. When business agencies were developed to sale travel related services then tourism industry started.

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Traveling is a human character but tourism is a new phenomena. Tourism is the most recent and important phenomena of the modern times.

Tourism is understood differently from different levels. Government tries to discuss the social and natural components of tourism. Businessmen view the tourism as an industry. They try to manage tourism product, production, distribution, promotion, pricing, customer relation etc. One may try to define tourism in fifty different ways but reality is that tourist must visit the destination and get involved in tourism activities. The visit and activities must generate economy at the place visited.

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Tourism is related to broader economic and social issues including commodification  and globalization of culture hospitality, friendship, pleasure,and place and its attractions. Within this realm, tourism is regarded as experience industry where travel experience is sold as a commodity just like other household, recreation -oriented products.

Therefore, tourism is related to travel, stay and involvement of the outsiders in tourism activities. Their travel and stay need to generate economy and economy is generated by service. For this there should be buying and selling process. Only tourism business are able to involve in motivating travelers to travel, organize travel formalities, and provide travel related services and they can sale tour.