There are various means to carry products from one place to another. Land transport, water transport, air transport and pipeline transport are the major means of transportation. Each of them has its own features, merits and demerits. Proper means of transportation should be selected according to necessity, the nature of goods, cost, time for transportation, reliability, capacity, access, security etc. We can classify and describe the different modes of transportation in the following ways mentioned below:
1. Land Transport System
Land transport is the oldest and more practiced system. The means, which are used to carry people and goods through land transport are called land transportation. Land transportation is again divided in two classes as road transport and railway transport.
i. Road Transport
Road transport is being used from ancient time and it is very useful and important. The means of road transport are: a). men and labors, b). animals such as mule, horse, sheep, goat, camel etc. c). cart, lorry etc. d). the modern automobile such as motor, bus, truck, tractor, tempo, trolley bus, jeep etc are also used to transport people and goods. People, cloths, paper materials, books, machines and machinery, animals, fresh fruits and other goods are transported from one place to another.
Labors or porters are used to carry goods to remote places where modern means of transport have not reached. In some places horse, mule, sheep, goat, camels etc. are used to transport goods. Rickshaw, cycle, cart, lorry etc are also used in transporting goods and people. But the means of transport like bus, truck, tractor, motor, etc. have become very popular means of transporting goods and people. Nowadays, motor, truck, bus, jeep etc. have become synonyms of road transport.
ii. Railway Transport
The other important means of land transport is railway. It is used to transport goods and people from one place to another. Development of railway transport helps much to develop industry, commerce and whole economy of any country. It is very useful in transporting big and heavy goods and materials. Mostly railway is used in transporting big and heavy materials such as big machines, coal, food grain, chemicals, automobiles, iron , steel etc.
2. Water Transport System
Water transport is taken as an ancient means of transport, It was developed and used to transport goods and people from one country to another before the development of air transport. It is also operated to transport goods from one part to another of any country through big canals, rivers or sea. Water transport is a system of transporting goods and people from one place to another by ship, boat, steamer, motorboat etc. through canals, rivers, lake, sea, ocean etc. Water transport is suitable to transport petroleum products, chemicals, iron, machines, tools, heavy equipment, coal and several heavy goods.
3. Air Transport System
Air transport is the fastest modern means of transport. Air transport was started after First World War, especially after 1918. In the beginning until 1960, only passengers, mails, perishable goods and costly light goods were transported by air transport. But nowadays, air transport system has also become suitable for other industrial and commercial products. According to the research carried out by Air Canada on air fair market, air transport system has been proved cost effective and practical means for transporting industrial and business goods.
The importance of air transport has gradually growing. This is the fastest speed means for transporting passengers and goods to different parts within a country and different countries of the world. Mostly, flowers of different species, perishable edibles, technical goods, emergency parts and parcels, equipment, mails and other valuable goods are transported by air transport system.
4. Pipeline Transport System
Pipeline is another important means of transport. Raw oil, Petroleum products, processed coal, drinking water, natural gas etc. are transported from one place to another place. Pipeline transport may be constructed underground or underwater. This means of transport is very useful for quick transportation of liquid materials even through high hills or plane land. This is regular and reliable means of transport. It needs less manpower. It does not need packaging service and cost and it can be operated 24 hours. It becomes long lasting in the condition of proper repair. But construction of pipeline system take huge investment and it can transport only liquid materials.
5. Rope-way Transport System
Rope-way is the another means of transport. It can transport people and goods. It can be operated in the places where road construction is impractical and costly. Certain limit of goods or people can be transported with the help of electricity. In the hilly remote countries, rope-way transport system may be suitable means.